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Assessment of Lake Water Quality by Using Palmer and Trophic State Index- a Case Study of Upper Lake, Bhopal, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1SSL Jain PG College, Vidisha, Dist: Vidisha, MP, INDIA
  • 2JS Government PG College, Betul, MP, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 2, Issue (5), Pages 1-8, May,22 (2013)


In India, various natural and manmade lakes, wetlands and reservoirs are located within the urban limitsof major cities. These limnetic water resources objectively fulfill various demands of mankind but due to ever increasing anthropogenic influences and extensive urbanization, several water bodies are gradually being degraded badly. The cumulative effects of anthropogenic pressure and exerted pollution load from point and non-point sources are affecting water quantity and quality of these urban water bodies. Upper Lake is one of the important urban lakes of India,located in Bhopalwhich is a state capital of Madhya Pradesh.This lake is being used as a prime source of drinking water supply for Bhopal city. In view of its ecological importance, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India has recognized this lake along with another lake (Lower lake) located downstream of Upper Lake as wetland of national importance and designated them as “Bhoj Wetland” in 1998 and later declared as Ramsar site in year 2002.Present investigation was an attempt to assess the Upper Lake water quality by using palmer and trophic state index for better understanding of limnetic chemistry. Results revealed that concentration of important parameters which mainly govern the lake chemistry were found beyond the permissible limits andabove to the threshold level of eutrophication. By perusing the results of Palmer Index, out of 20 Genus, 12 Genus were found with total index value of 27 that indicate organic pollution in lake while results of trophic state index indicate that Upper Lake is in higher stage of eutrophy due to high nutrients loading.


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