International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Physiological behaviour of few Cultivars of Paddy (Oryza sativa L.) during Seed Germination and early Growth, subjecting to distillery Effluent Stress

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Studies in botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Studies in Sericultural Science, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore -570006, INDIA
  • 3 Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi- 110007, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 2, Issue (9), Pages 5-10, September,10 (2013)


An attempt was made to understand physiological behavior of few cultivars of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) subjecting to distillery effluent stress. Physio-chemical data of effluent reveals that it is rich in both organic and inorganic load. Subjecting five cultivars of paddy viz., Jaya, Jyothi, Mandya Vijay and MTU-1001, to different dilution of effluent (viz. 6%, 12%, 25%, 50% and 100%) preliminary germination was conducted. Percent germination, root length and shoot length was almost similar in control and 6% dilution of distillery effluent, with further increase in concentration, gradual inhibitory effect was noticed, whereas complete inhibition was observed at 100%. Physiological parameters such as total carbohydrate, total starch content was high, whereas reducing sugar was low in germinated seedlings treated at higher concentration of effluent. Total protein decreased at higher concentration in all cultivars of paddy. It was high at 6% and decreased gradually with increase in dilution concentration of effluent, when compared to control. These results reveal that degradation and mobilization of seed serves is impaired by cat ions and anions in the effluent by disturbing the activities of enzymes essential for it. Overall data of physiological parameter reveals that Jaya cultivar is sensitive among five cultivars of paddy, when subjected to distillery effluent stress.


  1. Anonymous, The Hindu-Survey of Indian Agriculture, Kasturi Publishers, Chennai, 27 (2002)
  2. Sugar India, Anekant Prakashan, Jayasingapur, Kolhapur (2005)
  3. Cavusoglu A. and Sulusoglu M., In vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.), Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.,2(5), 49-53 (2013)
  4. A.P.H.A. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, American Public Health Association,(1985)
  5. Trivedi R.K. and Goel P.K., Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies, Environment publication, Karad, (1986)
  6. 106.ISTA, International rules for seed testing, Seed Sci. and Tech.,13, 421-463 (1985)
  7. Hodge J.E. and Hofreiter B.T., In: Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry (eds Whistler, R.L. and Be Miller, J. N.) Academic Press New York (1962)
  8. Dubois M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.A. and Smith F., Anal Chem,26, 350 (1956)
  9. Lowry O.H. Rosebrough N.J., Farr A.L. and Randall R.L., Protein measurement with Folin reagent, J Biol Chem.,193, 265 (1951)
  10. Miller G.L., Anal Chem,31, 426 (1972)
  11. Tukey M., Comparing individual means in the analysis of variance, Biometrics,, 99-114 (1949)
  12. Vijayakumari K. and Kumudha P., Effect of distillery effluent on seed germination and early seedling growth in some crop plants, Geobios, 17, 206-211 (1990)
  13. Subramani A., Sundaramoorthy P. and Lakshmanachary A.S., Effect of biologically treated distillery effluent on seed germination and seedling growth of green gram Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek Var. CO.2], Poll. Res. 14(1), 37-41 (1995)
  14. Kannan J., Effect of distillery effluent irrigation on soil biological properties on which groundcrops were raised, Adv. Plant. Sci.,15(11), 439-443 (2002)
  15. Sukanya T.S. and Meli S.S., Soil fertility status as affected by use of distillery effluent (spentwash) as irrigation water in wheat, Mys. J. Agri. Sci., 39(2) 151-157 (2005)
  16. Tharakeshwari M. and Shobha J., Effect of distillery effluent on seed germination, seedling growth and root meristem cells of Vigna radiata. L, J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit.,16(4), 341-345 (2006)
  17. Amen R.D., A model of seed dormancy, Bot. Rev., 34, 1-31 (1968)
  18. Ching T.M., Metabolism of seeds. In seed Biology (Ed. T.T. Kozlowski), II, 103-219 (1972)
  19. Mayer E. and Poljakoff-Mayer A., The germination of seeds. The Mc-Millan Co., New York, 61-94 (1963)
  20. Swain R.R. and Dekker E.E., Seed germination studies. II. Pathways for starch degradation in germinating pea seedlings, Biochem. Biophys. Acta., 122, 87-100 (1966)
  21. Himabindu T. and Jaganmohan Reddy K., Effect of paper mill effluent on biochemical characteristics of rice, (Var. Swarna mahsuri), Nature environment and pollution tech.,4(4), 617-619 (2005)
  22. Vijayakumari B., Impact of textile dyeing effluent on growth of Soybean (Glycine max L.), J Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit., 13(1), 59-64 (2003)
  23. Mutchuchelian K., Rani S.M.V. Kandasamy G. and Paliwal K., Influence of sewage water and sewage soil on photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and biomass accumulation of Phaseolus mungo. L, Indian J. Environ.Hlth. 30(4), 367-371 (1988)
  24. Singh D.K., Kumar D. and Singh V.P., Studies of pollution effects of sugar mill and distillery effluent on seed germination and seedling growth of three varieties of rice, J. Environ.Biol., 6(1), 31-35 (1985)
  25. Subramani A., Saravanan S., Sundaramoorthy P. and Lakshmanachary A.S., Impact of fertilizer factory effluent on the morphometrical and biochemical changes of cowpea (Vigna ungiculata .) Walp, Adv. Plant Sci., 11(1), 137-141 (1998)
  26. Laksmi S. and Sudaramoorthy P., Biochemical and mineral content changes of the paddy seedlings under tannery effluent treatment, J. Environ. Poll., 8(1), 13-17 (2001)
  27. Sivaraman M. and Thamizhiniyan P., Effect of sago factory effluent on biochemical and mineral contents of blackgram (Vigna mungo), J.Ecotoxicol.Environ.Monit.,15(2), 117-122 (2005)
  28. Murthy G.P., Sudarshana M.S., Prakasha and Manjunatha R.A., Studies on the physico-chemical properties of sugarmill effluent and their effects on germination, seedling morphology and biochemical contstituents of some commercial crops, Biosciences, Biotech. Pes. Asia, 2(1), 589-63 (2004)
  29. Behera B.K. and Mishra B.N., The effect of sugar mill effluent on enzyme activities of rice seedlings, Industrial research,37, 390-398 (1985)
  30. Sahai R. and Srivastava V., Effect of distillery waste on the seed germination, seedling growth and pigment content of Cajanus cajan . Indian Bot. Soc.,65, 206-211 (1986)
  31. Swaminathan K. and Vaidheeswaran P., Effect of dyeing factory effluent on seed germination and seedling development of groundnut (Arachis hypogea), J. Environ. Biol., 12(4), 353-358 (1991)