Assessment of drinking water quality of Kathmandu Municipality Area, Kathmandu, Nepal in pre-monsoon season
- 1Department of Botany, Bhaktapur Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhaktapur, Nepal
- 2Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
- 3Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
- 4Department of Zoology, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
- 5Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
- 6Department of Environment Science, Tri-chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvn University, Kathmandu, Nepal
- 7Department of Chemistry, Thakur Ram Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Birgunj, Nepal
- 8Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal
- 9Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 8, Issue (4), Pages 54-62, October,2 (2019)
This study was conducted with a view to evaluate water quality status of Kathmandu Municipality area in pre-monsoon season. A total of 97 water samples from four different water sources viz., stone spouts, wells, boring and municipal public taps of the municipality area were examined for the purpose. Physico-chemical parameters such as turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total hardness, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, ammonia, iron, manganese and arsenic, and total coloform as microbial parameter were determined and analyzed using standard protocols. Results revealed that the range and mean concentrations of the selected parameters were found to vary among the water sources. The results were also compared against the National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS) of Nepal and WHO guidelines. The pH, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, ammonia, manganese and iron levels of all tested samples were found within NDWQS as well as WHO standards. While 33 (34 %), 3 (3.1%), 16 (16.5%) and 47 (48.5%) of the total samples crossed NDWQS guideline for turbidity, electrical conductivity, ammonia and iron content respectively, 50 (51.6%), 8 (8.3%), 16 (16.5%) and 47 (48.5%) samples exceeded WHO standard respectively for the same parameters. Total hardness of all tested samples revealed their results within NDWQS guideline value but 50 (51.6%) samples crossed WHO standard as per its maximum permissible limit. The microbial analysis showed total coliforms in 82 (84.5%) of the total water samples exceeding both NDWQS and WHO standards. As for the microbial contamination range and risk level, only 15 (15.5%) of the total water samples were found risk free of which 15 (44.1%) samples were contributed from municipal tap water alone. Based on our findings, we conclude that the drinking water quality of Kathmandu Municipality area is not yet satisfactory which may be improved by effective planning and policies, strategies and management practices in terms of safe water supply and environmental sanitation.
- Sharma S., Bajracharya R.M., Sitaula B. and Juerg M. (2005)., Water quality in the Central Himalaya., Current Sci., 89, 774-786.
- Lerda D.E. and Prosperi C.H. (1996)., Water mutagenicity and toxicology in rio tercero (cordoba, argentina)., Water Research, 30(4), 819-824.
- Ikem A., Odueyungbo S. and Egiebor Nyavor N.O.K. (2002)., Chemical Quality of Bottled Waters from Three Cities in Eastern Alabama., Sci. Total Environ., 285, 165-175.
- World Health Organization (2008)., Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Incorporating the first and second addenda., Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Udmale P., Ishidaira H., Thapa B. and Shakya N. (2016)., The status of domestic water demand: supply deficit in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal., Water, 8(5), 196. doi:10.3390/w8050196
- Santosh N., Khatiwada N.R. and Subedi D.R. (2006)., Sustainability of Traditional Water Supply Facilities in Nepal., 13-15.
- Warner N.R., Levy J., Harpp K. and Farruggia F. (2008)., Drinking water quality in Nepal´s Kathmandu Valley: a survey and assessment of selected controlling site characteristics., Hydrogeology Journal, 16(2), 321-334.
- National Drinking Water Quality Standard (2005)., Implementation Directives for National Drinking Water Quality Standards, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Government of Nepal.,
- Aryal R.S. (2011)., Ground water reality., New Spotlight, 4, 19.
- Republica (2019)., Stone water spouts in capital going dry., http://admin.myrepublica.com/society/story/39331/stone-water-spouts-in-capital-going-dry.html Accessed on 31 March, 2019.
- APHA, AWWA and WPCF (1995)., Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water., 9th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC.
- Trivedy R.K. and Goel P.K. (1984)., Chemical and Biological Methods for Water Pollution Studies., Environmental Publications, Oriental Printing Press, Aligarh.
- Bajracharya A.M., Yami K.D., Prasai T., Basnyat S.R. and Lekhak B. (2007)., Assessment of drinking water quality of Kathmandu metropolitan areas., Nepal J. Sci. Tech., 8, 113-118.
- Tamrakar C.S. and Shakya P.R. (2013)., Physico-chemical Assessment of Deep Groundwater Quality of Various Sites of Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal., Res. J. Chem. Sci., 3, 78-82.
- Tamrakar C.S. (2014)., Evaluation of Physico-chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water Supply in Kathmandu, Nepal., Res. J. Chem. Sci., 4, 33-36.
- Maharjan M. (2005)., Groundwater Quality Surveillance in Kathmandu and Lalitpur Municipality Areas-A Joint Study., Report, JICA and ENPHO, Kathmandu, Nepal.
- Fondriest Environmental (2014)., Conductivity, Salinity and Total Dissolved Solids., Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements. https://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water quality/conductivity-salinity-tds/ Accessed on 15 March, 2019
- Wetzel R.G. and Limnology W.B. (1975)., Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA, 743.
- Hem J.D. (1985)., Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water., U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply.
- Krouse R. and Mayer B. (1999)., Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in sulphate., In: Cook PG, Herczeg AL, editors. Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology. Kluwer; Boston, 195-231.
- Seller L.E. and Canter L.W. (1980)., Sulfates in surface and ground water., National Center for Ground Water Research; Norman, Oklahoma.
- EPA (1999)., Health effects from exposure to high levels of sulfate in drinking water study., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
- Purandara B.K. (2003)., Impact of sewage on groundwater quality-A case study., Poll Res. Env. media, 22, 189-198.
- Purandara B.K. and Varadarajan N. (2003)., Impacts on Groundwater Quality by Urbanization., J. Ind. Water Res. Soc., 23(4), 107-115.
- Diwakar J., Yami K.D. and Prasai T. (2008)., Assessment of drinking water of Bhaktapur Municipality area in pre-monsoon season., Scientific World, 6, 94-98.
- Nolan B.T., Ruddy B.C., Hitt K.J. and Helsel D.R. (1998)., A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water., Water Conditioning and Purification, 39(12), 76-79.
- National Academy of Sciences (1981)., Committee on Nitrite and Alternative Curing Agents in Food., The health effects of nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds. Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/19738/the-health-effects-of-nitrate-nitrite-and-n-nitroso-compounds Accessed on 15 March, 2019
- JICA/ENPHO/MPPW (2005)., Groundwater quality surveillance in Kathmandu and Lalitpur Municipality areas., JICA expert office at MPPW, Singhdurbar and Environment and Public Health Organization, Kathmandu.
- NGO FORUM (2006)., Traditional Stone Spouts., Enumeration, Mapping and water quality (five municipal area of the Kathmandu Valley 2006). NGO FORUM for urban water and sanitation. New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, 6-47.
- Ammonia (1986)., Geneva, World Health Organization., Environmental Health Criteria, No. 54.
- United States. Environmental Protection Ageny. Office of Health, & Environmental Assessment. (1988)., Summary Review of Health Effects Associated with Hydrogen Fluoride and Related Compounds: Health Issue Assessment., US Environmental Protection Agency.
- Pant B.R. (2011)., Ground water quality in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal., Environ. Monit. Assess., 178, 477-485. doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1706-y.
- WATER STEWARDSHIP INFORMATION SERIES (2007)., Iron & Manganese in Groundwater., https://www.rdn.bc.ca/cms/wpattachments/wpID2284atID3808.pdf, Accessed on 20 March, 2019.
- SaskH2O (2007)., Iron (For Private Water and Health Regulated Public Water Supplies)., http://www.saskh2o.ca/PDF-WaterCommittee/iron.pdf, Accessed on 15 March, 2019.
- Mandal B.K. and Suzuki K.T. (2002)., Arsenic round the world: a review., Talanta., 58, 201-235.
- Pontius F.W., Brown K.G. and Chen C.J. (1994)., Health implications of arsenic in drinking water., J. Am. Water Work Assoc., 86, 52-63.
- Prasai T., Joshi D.R., Lekhak B. and Baral M.P. (2007)., Microbiological analysis of drinking water of Kathmandu valley., Scientific World, 5, 112-114.
- Koju N., Prasai T., Shrestha S. and Raut P. (2015)., Drinking Water Quality of Kathmandu Valley., Nepal J. Sci. Tech., 15, 115-120.
- Rathore J., Jain S., Sharma S., Choudhary V. and Sharma A. (2009)., Ground water Quality Assessment at Pali, Rajasthan India., J. Environ. Sci. Eng., 51, 269-272.