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Assessment of drinking water quality of Kathmandu Municipality Area, Kathmandu, Nepal in pre-monsoon season

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Botany, Bhaktapur Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhaktapur, Nepal
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 3Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 4Department of Zoology, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 5Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 6Department of Environment Science, Tri-chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvn University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 7Department of Chemistry, Thakur Ram Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Birgunj, Nepal
  • 8Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal
  • 9Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 8, Issue (4), Pages 54-62, October,2 (2019)

Abstract

This study was conducted with a view to evaluate water quality status of Kathmandu Municipality area in pre-monsoon season. A total of 97 water samples from four different water sources viz., stone spouts, wells, boring and municipal public taps of the municipality area were examined for the purpose. Physico-chemical parameters such as turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total hardness, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, ammonia, iron, manganese and arsenic, and total coloform as microbial parameter were determined and analyzed using standard protocols. Results revealed that the range and mean concentrations of the selected parameters were found to vary among the water sources. The results were also compared against the National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS) of Nepal and WHO guidelines. The pH, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, ammonia, manganese and iron levels of all tested samples were found within NDWQS as well as WHO standards. While 33 (34 %), 3 (3.1%), 16 (16.5%) and 47 (48.5%) of the total samples crossed NDWQS guideline for turbidity, electrical conductivity, ammonia and iron content respectively, 50 (51.6%), 8 (8.3%), 16 (16.5%) and 47 (48.5%) samples exceeded WHO standard respectively for the same parameters. Total hardness of all tested samples revealed their results within NDWQS guideline value but 50 (51.6%) samples crossed WHO standard as per its maximum permissible limit. The microbial analysis showed total coliforms in 82 (84.5%) of the total water samples exceeding both NDWQS and WHO standards. As for the microbial contamination range and risk level, only 15 (15.5%) of the total water samples were found risk free of which 15 (44.1%) samples were contributed from municipal tap water alone. Based on our findings, we conclude that the drinking water quality of Kathmandu Municipality area is not yet satisfactory which may be improved by effective planning and policies, strategies and management practices in terms of safe water supply and environmental sanitation.

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