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Purification of Biogas using Chemical Scrubbing and Application of Purified Biogas as Fuel for Automotive Engines

Author Affiliations

  • 1Mech. Engg. Dept., S.V.N.I.T., Surat- 395007, Gujarat, India
  • 2Mech. Engg. Dept., S.V.N.I.T., Surat- 395007, Gujarat, India
  • 3Biogas Research Centre, Gujarat Vidhyapeeth, Sadra, Dist. Gandhiagar, Gujarat, India

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 5, Issue (ISC-2015), Pages 1-7, -----Select----,2 (2016)

Abstract

Energy has become prerequisite to represent economic development and improved quality of life for citizens of any country. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in last few decades, there is a huge pressure on depletable crude oil, coal and other fossil fuels. It has been also observed that use of conventional crude based petroleum fuels are affecting pollution level and their combustion products are found responsible for the global warming and climate change. So researchers are doing their research to find out green energy alternatives to reduce emission of green house gases. About 70% population of India lives in rural areas and majority of them are engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry and small scale rural industries. In agriculture there is tremendous increase in energy consumption with increased use of tractor, bore well, irrigation pumps and farm machineries etc. Using anaerobic digestion of different biomasses such as cow/cattle dung, vegetables/fruit/agriculture waste, droppings of poultry farm, industrial waste water, municipal solid e/sewerage waste etc., biogas can be produced .In rural areas cattle dung and vegetable waste whereas in cities and urban area municipal solid waste are available in abundant quantity, from which biogas can be generated. In composition of biogas methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), traces of hydrogen sulfide, and moisture is found. Biogas quality can be upgraded by removal of CO2, H2S resulting into increased methane content nearer to the natural gas. Gas obtained after removing CO2, H2S, and moisture from raw biogas is equivalent to natural gas which can be compressed for bottling in cylinders and can be used as fuel for vehicle engines. Any low cost technique to remove carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from biogas can make biogas a techno-commercially viable fuel. In this paper results obtained during experiments on biogas purification by chemical scrubbing i)) dry lime and potassium hydroxide and ii) aqueous solution of Caustic and lime are shown. Also results of on road testing of a vehicle fuelled with purified compressed biogas are shown showing one can purify the raw biogas to convert it to bio CNG which can be used as a vehicular fuel.

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