International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Molecular evolution of β Galactosidase in Thermophiles, Psychrophiles, Mesophiles, Plants and Mammals by in silico approach

Author Affiliations

  • 1Dept. of Biotechnology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 5, Issue (2), Pages 1-11, February,2 (2016)

Abstract

To understand adaptation and the evolution at molecular level, -galactosidase was studied among thermophiles, psychrophiles, mesophiles, plants and mammals. Conserved domain analysis revealed that -galactosidase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family. However, phylogenetic analysis showed higher degree of divergence among bacteria while highly conserved in mammals and plants except Arabidopsis thaliana. 3D modeled structures were studied for interaction with lactose, ONPG, PNPG, glucose, galactose, and ONP. Lactose showed tight binding to all the -galactosidase except in A. psychrolactophilus, where maximum interaction was observed with ONPG. Galactose, glucose and ONP exhibited competitive inhibition for lactose, ONPG and PNPG in H. sapiens, A. psychrolactophilus, and T. african, while un-competitive inhibition for A. thaliana and E. coli.

References

  1. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1515406/extremophile (2015)
  2. Niehaus F., Bertoldo C., Kaehler M. and Antranikian G. (1999) Extremophiles as a source of novel enzymes for industrial application, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 51, 711-729.
  3. Taylor T.J. and Vaisman I.I. (2009) Discrimination of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins, BMC Structural Biology, 10, S5.
  4. Szilagyi A. and Zavodszky P. (2000) Structural differences between mesophilic, moderately thermophilic and extremely thermophilic protein subunits: results of a comprehensive survey. Structure, 8, 493-504.
  5. Mizuguchi K., Sele M. and Cubellis M.V. (2006) Environment specific substitution tables for thermophilic proteins, BMC Bioinformatics, 8, S15.
  6. Shipkowski S. and Brenchley J.E. (2006) Bioinformatic, genetic, and biochemical evidence that some glycoside hydrolase family 42 galactosidases are arabinogalactan type I Oligomer hydrolases, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 7730-7738.
  7. Bose R., Arora S., Dwivedi V.D. and Pandey A. (2013) Amino acid based in silico analysis of galactosidases, International journal on Bioinformatics and Biosciences, 3, 37- 44.
  8. Kern F.J. and Struthers J.E.J. (1996) Intestinal lactose deficiency and lactose intolerance in adults, TheJournal of American Medical Association, 195, 143147.
  9. Tumerman L., Fraw H. and Corneley K.W. (1954) The effect of lactose crystallization of protein stability in frozen concentrated milk, Journal of Dairy Science, 37,830–838.
  10. Mlichova Z. and Rosenberg M. (2006) Current trends of galactosidases application in food technology, Journal of food and nutrition research, 45, 4754.
  11. Park H.Y., Kim H.J. and Lee J.K. (2008) Galactooligosaccharide production by a thermostable galactosidase from Sulfolobus solfatricus, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24, 1553-1558.
  12. Fowler A.V. and Zabin I. (1977) The amino acid sequence of galactosidase of Escherichia coli, Biochemistry, 4, 1507-1510.
  13. Bilbao M.M., Holdsworth R.E., Edwards L.A. and Huber R.E. (1991) Highly reactive galactosidase (Escherichia coli) resulting from a substitution of an Aspartic acid for Gly 794, The journal of Biological Chemistry, 266, 49794986.
  14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. (2014)
  15. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/sss/psiblast. (2014)
  16. http://www.ibi.vu.nl/programs/pralinewww. (2014)
  17. http:// pfam.sanger.ac.uk. (2014)
  18. http://evolution.genetics.washington.edu/phylip.html. (2014)
  19. http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/phyre2/html/page.cgi?id=index. (2014)
  20. http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/home/home.do. (2014)
  21. http://swissmodel.expasy.org. (2014)
  22. http://mordred.bioc.cam.ac.uk/~rapper/rampage.php. (2014)
  23. http://hex.loria.fr. (2014)
  24. https://www.pymol.org. (2014)
  25. Hidaka M., Fushinobu S. and Ohtsu N. et al. (2002) Trimeric crystal structure of the glycoside hydrolase family 42 beta-galactosidase from Thermus thermophilus A4 and the structure of its complex with galactose, Journal of Molecular Biology, 322(1), 79-91.
  26. Jures D.H., Mathews B.W. and Huber R.E. and Lac Z (2012) galactosidase: Structure and function of an enzyme of historical and molecular biological importance, Protein Science, 21, 17921807.
  27. Rojas A.L., Nagem R.A.P., Neustroev K.N., Arand M., Adamska M., Eneyskaya E.V., Kulminskaya A.A., Garratt R.C., Golubev A.M. and Polikarpov I. (2004) Crystal structure of galactosidase from Penicillium sp. and its complex with galactose, Journal of Molcular Biology, 343, 12811292.
  28. Cheng W., Wang L., Jiyang Y.L., Bai X.H., Chu J., Li Q., Yu G., Liang Q.L., Zhou C.Z. and Chen Y. (2012) Structural insights into the substrate specificity of Streptococcus pneumonia 1.3 galactosidase BgaC, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287, 22910-22918.
  29. http://bioinformatics.cineca.it/PMDB. (2014)
  30. http://www.modelling.leeds.ac.uk/qsitefinder. (2014)
  31. Kumar P.S., Pulicherla K.K., Ghosh M., Kumar A. and Rao K.R.S.S. (2011) Structural prediction and comparative docking studies of psychrophilic galactosidase with lactose, ONPG and PNPG against its counterparts of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes, Bioinformation, 6, 311-314.
  32. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/msa/clustalw2. (2014)
  33. Seddigh S. and Darabi M. (2014) Comprehensive analysis of beta-galactosidase protein in plants based on Arabidopsis thaliana, Turkish Journal o f Biology, 38, 140-150.
  34. http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/home/home.do. (2014)
  35. http://www.chemspider.com. (2014)