International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Human Tide: An Environmentally Induced Migration

Author Affiliations

  • 1Sambhu Nath College, Labpur, W.B. INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 4, Issue (IVC-2015), Pages 22-24, (2015)


Human migration due to environmental degradation produces environmental refugees which has become a burning issue now-a-days for many countries. Although it originates initially due to ecological disruptions, it creates various complex socio-economic problems. The objectives of this paper are to find out the causes of the rapid generation of environmental refugees, to discuss about the associated problems like rehabilitation, resettlement, social security, economic stability, and political conflict, role of governments as well as the NGOs and final recommendations to mitigate this problem. The study reveals that natural hazards like flood, earthquake, desertification etc., pollution and climate change due to anthropogenic activities like rapid industrialization and unplanned urban growth, construction of large developmental projects like dams are the main causes of the generation of environmental refugees. Changing consumption pattern, loss of biodiversity, deforestation, illegal poaching as well as trading of wild animals, population explosion, illiteracy, lack of food and safe drinking water etc., are the indirect causes of this problem. Some remedial measures are suggested to mitigate this problem. Those are: biodiversity conservation, proper disaster management plan, adoption of low carbon economy and green technology, afforestation and reforestation, sustainable development, conduction of EIA before any developmental project, providing legal protection, proper resettlement and suitable alternative employment to the affected people, conduction of awareness campaign and regular health check up etc.


  1. Myers N., Environmental Refugees: Our Latest Understanding, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society,(356), 161-165, (2001)
  2. Kliot N., Environmentally Induced Population Movements: Their Complex Sources and Consequences -A Critical Review, Environmental Change and Its Kluwer, Dordrecht, 69, (2004)
  3. Hugo G., Environmental Concerns and International Migration, International Migration Review, 30(1), 105-131, (1996)
  4. Graves P.E., Migration and Climate, J. Regional Sc.20(2), 227-237, (1980)
  5. Beniston M., Issues Relating to Environmental Change and Population Migrations: A Climatologist's Perspective, Environmental Change and Its Implications for Population Migration, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1-24, (2004)
  6. Agarwal A., Environmental Refugees, Down To Earth15(3), 65-69, (2006)
  7. Chhibber B., Environmental Refugees in India, Science Reporter, 43(9), 14-15, (2006)