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QTL Mapping: A Tool for Improvement in Crop plants

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, MPUAT, Udaipur, Rajasthan- 313001, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 4, Issue (IVC-2015), Pages 7-12, (2015)


It is review paper and highlighting the importance of QTL Mapping in Crop plants. A QTL is defined as “a region of the genome or locus of gene that is associated with an effect on a quantitative trait”. It is coined by Gelderman . Conceptually, a QTL can be a single gene, or it may be a group of linked genes that affect the trait. QTL mapping based on linkage and marker trait association can be effectively used for gene pyramiding, germplasm screening of diversified material for abiotic (salinity, cold, salt, drought) and biotic stresses (disease, pest) etc. The identification and location of specific genes mediating quantitative characters is having great importance in plant breeding. Proper development and understanding of the statistical background is essential for QTL mapping. A quantitative trait which is controlled by several genes, all the genes having small effects, additive in nature and is more affected by environment. Molecular markers are used to map QTL’s. Mapping population includes F2, back crosses, recombinant inbred lines, and double haploids lines. Strong linkage disequilibrium at marker loci and allele of linked loci controlling the trait is essential feature of such type of population. QTL mapping is required Non-random mating populations. Objectives of QTL mapping is to offer direct mean to investigate the number of genes influencing the trait, to find out the location of the gene that affect traits of interest, to know the effect of genes on variation of the trait, to carry out study on linkage between genes of interest. The basic Principle is the co- segregation of marker locus and QTL together. Co-segregation is due to linkage between marker and QTL. Methods used for QTL mapping are single markerapproach (SMA), simple interval mapping (SIM), compositeinterval mapping (CIM), multiple interval mapping(MIM). Various Factors affecting QTL mapping are number of genes controlling the target traits and their position, heritability of the traits, type and size of mapping population used in QTL mapping, type and number of markers in linkage maps, statistical method used.


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