International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effect of Occupational performance Visuo-Auditory imitation Intervention (OPVAII) on Visual perception among children with Autism: Pilot study

Author Affiliations

  • 1Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, MALAYSIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 4, Issue (12), Pages 1-6, December,2 (2015)


The children with autism have deficit in visual perception (VP) which affects their ability in occupational performance area. Imitation is also one of the deficits among autism. A new intervention Performance Visuo-Auditory Imitation Intervention (OPVAII) was developed to improve visual perception for children with autism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Occupational Performance Visuo-Auditory Imitation Intervention to improve visual perception among autism. A total of 5 participants consist of 4male and 1 female participated on 10 week intervention. A pre and post test was done to measure the participant score on visual perception using DTVP-2. There was significant effect (p0.05) on visual perception in children with autism. There was an improvement seen among autism in visual perception. In the future, a larger sample of autism children can be done on this study.


  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and tatistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., textrevision), Washington, DC: Author. (2000))
  2. Baron-Cohen S., The eye detection detector (EDD) and the shared attention mechanism (SAM): Two cases for evolutional psychology. In C. Moore and P.J. Dunham (Eds.), Joint attention: its origins and role in development,41-59 (1995)
  3. Nobre A.C., Gitelman D.R., Dias E.C. and Mesulam M.M., Covert visual spatial orienting and saccades:Overlapping neural systems, Neuroimage 11, 210-216 (2000)
  4. Tervo R., Identifying patterns of developmental delays can help diagnose neurodevelopmental disorders, A Pediatric Perspective, 12, 1–6 (2003)
  5. Tomasello M., Savage-Rumbaugh E.S. and Kruger A.C.,Imitative learning of actions on objects by children,chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees, Child Dev,64, 1688–170 (1993)
  6. Soorya L.V., Arnstein L.M., Gillis J. and Romanczyk R.G., An overview of imitation skills in autism:Implication for practice, The Behavior Analyst Today, 4(2), 141-123 (2003)
  7. Ganz J.B., Bourgeois B.C., Flores B.C. and Campos B.A.,Implementing visually cued imitation training withchildren with autism spectrum disorders and developmental delays, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10, 56-66. (2008)
  8. Gardner M.F., Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (nonmotor) Revised. Hydesville CA: Psychological and Educational Publications incorporated, (1996)
  9. Fellman D.J and Van Essesn D.C., Cerebr Cortex 1, 1±47.In, Spencer, J., O’Brien, J., Riggs, K., Braddick, O., Atkinson J. and Wattam-Bell J., (2000). Motion processingin autism: Evidence for a dorsal stream deficiency, Neuro Report, 11, 2765-2767 (1991)
  10. Young M.P., Nature 358, 152±155. In, Spencer, J.,O’Brien, J., Riggs, K., Braddick, O., Atkinson, J., andWattam-Bell, J. (2000). Motion processing in autism:Evidence for a dorsal stream deficiency, Neuro Report, 11,2765-2767 (1992)
  11. Mishkin M., Ungerleider L.G. and Macko K.A., et al.Trends Neurosci 6, 414±417. In, In, Spencer, J., O’Brien,J., Riggs, K., Braddick, O., Atkinson, J., and Wattam-Bell,J. (2000). Motion processing in autism: Evidence for a dorsal stream deficiency, Neuro Report, 11, 2765-2767 (1983)
  12. Milner A.D and Goodale M.A., The Visual Brain in Action Oxford: OUP. In, Spencer, J., O’Brien, J., Riggs, K., Braddick, O., Atkinson, J., and Wattam-Bell, J. (2000). Motion processing in autism: Evidence for a dorsal stream deficiency, Neuro Report, 11, 2765-2767 (1995)
  13. Spencer J., O’Brien J., Riggs K., Braddick O., Atkinson J. and Wattam-Bell J., Motion processing in autism: Evidence for a dorsal stream deficiency, Neuro Report,11,2765-2767 (2000)
  14. Rumiati R.I., Weiss P.H., Tessari A., Assmus A., Zilles K.,Herzog H., Common and differential neuralmechanisms supporting imitation of meaningful andmeaningless actions, Journal cognitive Neuroscience, 17,1420-1431 (2005)
  15. Courchesne E., Saitoh O., Yeung-Courchesne R., Press G.A., Lincoln A.J., Hass R.H., et al. Abnormality of cerebellar vermian lobules VI and VII in patients with infantile autism: Identification of hypoplastic and hyperplastic subgroups with MR imaging, Am Journal Roentgenol, 162, 123-130, (1994)
  16. Milne E., Griffiths H., Buckley D. and Scope A., Vision in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder: Evidence for reduced convergence, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 39(7), 965-975 (2009)
  17. Williams D. Nobody Now here, Doubleday, In Gepner B.and Mestre D., (2002). Rapid visual-motion integration deficits in autism, Trends Cognitive Science, 6, 455,(1992)
  18. Blair R.J., Fractionation of visual memory: agency detection and its impairment in autism, Neuropsychologia, 40, 108-118 (2000)
  19. Gepner B. and Mestre D., Rapid visual-motion integration deficits in autism, Trends Cognitive Science,, 455, (2002)
  20. Hutman T., Chela M.K., Gillespie-Lynch K. and Sigman M., Selective Visual Attention at Twelve Months: Signs of Autism in early social interactions, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,42(4), 487-498, (2012)
  21. Elbasan B., Atasavun S. and Düger T., Effects of visual perception and motor function on the activities of daily living in children with disabilities, Fizyoterapi Rehabilitasyon,22(3), 224-230 (2011)
  22. Loikith C.C., Visual perception: Development, assessment and intervention. In M. Gentile (Ed.), Functional visual behaviour: A therapist's guide to evaluation and treatment options. (pp. 197-247). Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association Inc. Cornoldi et al, (2003), (1997)
  23. Cornoldi C., Venneri A., Marconato F., Molin A. and Montinari C., A rapid screening measure for the identification of visuospatial learning disability in school, Journal of Learning Disabilities,36(4), 299-306 (2003)
  24. Gimeno-Galindo P., Vidal-López J., Rodán-González A., Javaloyes-Moreno B., Muiños-Durán M., Rifá-Giribet M., Codina-Fossas M. and García-Montero M., Training activities for visual-perceptual skills: visual-sequential memory (Basic level), Solutions for learning and research,(2009)
  25. Meltzoff A.N. and Decenty J., What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 358, 491-500, (2003)
  26. Jackson P.L., Meltzoff A.N. and Decety J., Neural circuits involved in imitation and perspective-taking, NeuroImage,31, 429-439, (2005)
  27. Smith J.C., Occupational Therapy for children. 5th edt. United States: Elsevier Mosby (2005)
  28. Heyes C., Active Intermodal Model. In: Causes and consequences of imitation, Trends in Cognitive sciences 5,253-261 (2001)
  29. Gaussier P., Joulain C., Revel A., Zrehen S. and Banquet J.P., Building grounded symbols for localization using motivation, In Fourth European Conf. on Artificial Life, 299-308, (1997)
  30. Decety J., A cognitive neurosciences view of imitation. In Rogers, S., Williams, J. (Eds.), Imitations and the Development of the Social Mind. Guilford Publications, New York (2006)
  31. Boraston Z. and Blakemore S.J., The application of eye-tracking technology in the study of autism, J. Physiol, , 893- 898, (2007)
  32. Ciesielski K.T., Courchesne E. and Elmasian R., Effects of focused selective attention tasks on event-related potentials in autistic and normal individuals, Electroencephalograpy and Clinical Neurophysiology, 75, 207-220, (1990)
  33. Hoffman M.W., Grimes D.B., Shon P.S. and Rao R.P.N. A probabilistic model of gaze imitation and shared attention, Neural Networks,19, 299-310, (2006)
  34. Im-Bolter N., Johnson J. and Pascual-Leone J., Processing limitations in children with specific language impairment: The role of executive function, Child Development,77, 1822–1841 (2006)
  35. Ingersoll B. and Schreibman L., Teaching reciprocal imitation skill to young children with autism using naturalistic behavioral approach: Effect and language, pretend play and joint attention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 36, 487-505, (2006)
  36. Gallese V. and Goldman A., Mirror neurons and simulation theory of mind reading, Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 493-501 (1998)
  37. Marton K., Imitation of body postures and hand movements in children with specific language impairment, J Exp Child Psychol, 102(1), 1-13 (2009)
  38. Wainwright J.A. and Bryson S.E., Visual-spatial orienting in autism, Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 26,423-438 (1996)
  39. Hurley S. and Chater N., Perspectives on Imitation: From Cognitive Neuroscience to Social Science, Boston, MA: MIT Press, (in press)
  40. Melzoff A.N. Element of a developmental theory of imitation. In: Meltzoff and Prinz (2002) The imitative mind: Development, Evolution and Brain Bases (2002)
  41. Hick R., Botting N. and Ramsden G.C., Cognitive abilities in children with specific language impairment: consideration of visuospatial skills. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 40, 137-149,(2005)
  42. Gaussier P., Moga S., Banquet J.P. and Quoy M., from perception-action loops to imitation processes: A bottom-up approach of learning by imitation. A technical report FS-97-02 (1997)
  43. Nadel J., Do children with autism understand imitation as intentional interaction? Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 4(2), 165-177 (2004)
  44. Williams D.L., Goldstein G., Carpenter A., Minshew N.J., Verbal and spatial working memory in autism, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 35(6), 747-756 (2005)
  45. Ullman M.T. and Pierpont E.I., Specific language impairment is not specific to language: the procedural deficit hypothesis, Departments of Neuroscience, Linguistics, Psychology and Neurology Georgetown University, USA (2002)
  46. Goldenberg G., Imitation and matching of hand finger postures, Neuroimage, 14, 132–136 (2001)
  47. Dawson G. and Watling R., Intervention to facilitates auditory, visual, and motor integration in autism: A review of evidence, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 30(5), 415-421, (2000)
  48. American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process, (2nd Ed) American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62,625-683, (2008)
  49. Hammill D.D., Pearson N.A. and Voress J.K. Developmental Test of Visual Perception – 2nd edition. Austin, TX: PRO-ED (1993)
  50. Schopler E., Reichler R.J., DeVellis R.F. and Daly K., Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)". J Autism Dev Disord, 10(1), 91–103 (1980)
  51. Mc Nemar and Quinn, The revision of the Stanford–Binet Scale, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (1942)
  52. Terman Lewis Madison., Merril. and Maude A., Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale: Manual for the Third Revision Form L–M with Revised IQ Tables by Samuel R. Pinneau. Boston (MA): Houghton Mifflin (1960)
  53. Fewell R.R. and Folio M.R., Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd ed; Austin: Pro--Ed (2000)
  54. Dunn W., The Sensory Profile: User’s manual, San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation (1999)