International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) against Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase producing multi drug resistant Bacteria from Urinary Tract Infections

Author Affiliations

  • 1Post Graduate and Research Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Presidency College (Autonomous), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
  • 2 Madha Medical College and Hospital, Chennai-600 122, Tamil Nadu, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 3, Issue (7), Pages 28-33, July,2 (2014)


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most common in both community and hospital settings and affect both male and females. The production of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL) is an important mechanism for resistance to the 3rd generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae causing UTIs. Hence an attempt is made in this study to determine the effect of Terminalia arjuna(Roxb.) against UTIs by ESBL producing bacteria. A study was conducted on 94 bacterial isolates from 162 urine samples. ESBL production was identified by using Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime by Combination Disc Method (CDM). The antibacterial activity of the bark extract of Terminalia arjuna against ESBL producing bacteria was determined by Disc diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). A total of52 isolates were identified as ESBL positive (26 were Escherichia coli, 15 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 Proteus vulgaris and 1 was Enterobacter sp.).The results of antibacterial activity of bark extract of Terminalia arjuna(Roxb.) against ESBL producing isolates revealed that ethanol is showing the maximum antibacterial property followed by aqueous extract. From this study, it was found that Terminalia arjuna(Roxb.) has the potential for the production of drug for the treatment of UTIs caused by ESBL producing bacteria. This might be the first report of antimicrobial activity of bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) against ESBL producing human pathogenic bacteria.


  1. Raju C.B. and Tiwari S.C., Urinary tract infection-A suitable approach. Lecture notes, J. Ind. Acad. Clin. Med.,2(4), 331-334, (2004)
  2. Mendelson G., Hait V., Ben-Israel J., Gronich D., Granot E. and Raz R., Prevalence and risk factors of extendedspectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in an Israeli long term care facility, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 24, 17-22 (2005)
  3. Kader A.A. and Angamuthu K., Extended-spectrum betalactamase in urinary isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and other gram-negative bacteria in a hospital in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Med. J.26(6),956-959 (2005)
  4. Thomson K.S., Extended-spectrum--lactamase, AmpC, and Carbapenemase, J. Clin. Microbiol., 48, 1019-102 (2010)
  5. Cantn R., Novais A., Valverde A., Machado E., Peixe L., Baquero F., et al., Prevalence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe, Clin. Microbiol. Infect.,14, 144153 (2008)
  6. Bradford P.A., Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the 21st century: Characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistance threat, Clin. Microbiol. Rev.,14, 933951 (2001)
  7. Soulsby E.J., Resistance to antimicrobials in humans and animals, Bra. J. Med.331, 1219-1220 (2005)
  8. Rupp M.E. and Fey P.D., Extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL)- producing Enterobacteriaceae: consideration for diagnosis, prevention and drug treatment, Drugs,63, 353-365 (2003)
  9. Ben-Ami R., Rodriguez-Bano J., Arslan H., Pitout J.D., Quentin C., et al., A Multinational survey of risk factors for infection with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae in non hospitalized patients, Clin. Infect. Dis.,49, 682-690 (2009)
  10. Jonathan N., Screening for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing pathogenic enterobacteria in district general hospitals, J. Clin. Microbiol.,43, 1488-1490 (2005)
  11. Mann A., Amupitan J.O., Oyewale A.O., Okogun J.I., Ibrahim K., Oladosu P., et al., Evaluation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of Nigerian plants used for treatment of respiratory diseases, Afr. J. Biotechnol.,, 16301636 (2008)
  12. Dwivedi S., Putative uses of Indian cardiovascular friendly plants in preventive cardiology, Ann. Natl. Acad. Med. Sci.,32, 159-175 (1996)
  13. Kaur K., Arora S., Kumar S. and Nagpala A., Antimutagenic activities of acetone and methanol fractions of Terminalia arjuna, Food Chem. Toxicol., 40,1475-1482 (2002)
  14. Cheesbrough M., District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 2, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press: London, (2000)
  15. CLSI. Performance Standards for antimicrobial disc susceptibility tests, 11th ed.., Approved Standards M02A11, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, (2012)
  16. Bauer R., Kirby M., Sherris J. and Turch M., Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method, Am. J. Clin. Pathol.,36, 439-496 (1966)
  17. Rajarajan S., In vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties in the leaf extract of Henna (Lawsonia inermis .L), Ind. J. Appl. Microbiol.,2(1), 59-61 (2002)
  18. Ali N.S., Protocol for evaluation and management of urinary tract infection in adults, Pak. J. Med. Sci. Rev.,16, 251-254 (2000)
  19. Brosnema D.A., Adams J.R. and Pallares R, Wenzel R.P., Secular trends in rates and etiology of nosocomial urinary tract infections at a university hospital, J. Urol.,150, 414-416, (1993)
  20. Weber G., Riesenberg K., Schlaeffer F., Peled N., Borer A. and Yagupsky P., Changing trends in frequency and antimicrobial resistance of urinary pathogens in outpatient clinics and a hospital in Southern Israel, Eur. J. Microbiol. Inf. Diseases, 16, 834-838 (1997)
  21. Gales A.C., Sader H,S. and Jones R.N., Urinary tract infection trends in Latin American hospitals, Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.,44, 289-299 (2002)
  22. Noor N., Ajaz M., Rasool S.A. and Pirzada Z.A., Urinary tract infections associated with multi drug resistant enteric bacilli: characterization and genetic studies, Pak. J. Biol. Sci.,17,115-123 (2004)
  23. Mathur P., Tatman A., Das B. and Dhawan B., Prevalence of extended beta lactamase producing gram negative bacteria in tertiary care hospital, Indian J. Med. Res.,115,153-7 (2002)
  24. Tankhiwale S.S., Jalgaonkar S.V., Ahamad S. and Hassani U., Evaluation of extended spectrum beta lactamase in urinary isolates, Indian J. Med. Res.,120, 553-6 (2004)
  25. Ramesh kumar M. R., Archana M., Vijaykanth N., Manikandan N. and Arunagirinathan N., Detection of Extended Spectrum -lactamase Producing Bacteria from Urinary Tract Infections from Chennai, Proceedings of the Current Scenario in Biotechnology, 252-257 (2012)
  26. Dobrowoiski M., Antibacterial, antifungal, antiamoebic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic studies on propolis bee products, J. Ethnopharmacol., 35,77-82 (1991)
  27. Morshed M.A., Uddin A., Rahman A., Hasan T., Roy S., Amin A.A., et al, In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxicity screening of Terminalia arjuna ethanol extract, Int. J. Bio. Sci., 1(2),31-38 (2011)
  28. Berghe V., Cos P., Hermans N., Bruyne S., Apers J. B., Sindambiwe D., et al, Further evaluation of Rwandan medicinal Plant extracts for their antimicrobial and antiviral activities, J. Ethnopharmacol., 79(2), 155-163 (1991)