International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Link Fault tolerable Network Topology for Network services provision in Disaster area

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Computer Science and IT, The University of Lahore, Lahore, PAKISTAN
  • 2Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, PAKISTAN

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 3, Issue (7), Pages 58-68, July,2 (2014)


The drift change in weather and wars among countries changing the map of world rapidly and their result are too much dangerous. Aftermath the mass destruction of natural disaster or war, the communication infrastructure might be smashed completely or partially and would not be able to support the requirements of rescue operation. In this research paper we have proposed a link fault tolerable network topology for network service provision in disaster areas. In proposed framework methodology all HAPs connected with each other in mesh network topology, in Star topology with satellite and point to point with WiMAX ground stations. All HAPs have multiple hot backup links, which will become active in case of congestion or active link failure. The proposed hybrid network topology evaluated in comparison with hierarchal network topology in context of infrastructure. The results of evaluation proved that hybrid network topology is better than hierarchal network topology in terms of link redundancy, link utilization, end to end delay and throughput. In terms of link redundancy and link utilization, Hierarchal network topology have only limited backbone links while proposed hybrid network topology multiple redundant links which will not only increase the consistency and reliability also reduce the load on individual links. All simulations are performed using Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET).


  1. Shafiq F. and Ahsan K.,Knowledge Management for Disaster Scenario: An Exploratory Study, Res. J. Recent Sci.,2(10), 61-66(2013)
  2. Select Bipartisan Committee, A Failure of Initiative: Final Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. US House of Representatives (Select Committee), 109th Congress, US Government Printing Office, Washington, District of Columbia. (2006)
  3. Beven-II J. L., Avila L. A. and et al., Annual Summary-Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005, Tropical Prediction Center, NOAA/NWS/National Hurricane Center, Miami, Florid,. (2008)
  4. Martin, K. J., Public Safety Communications from 9/11 to Katrina”, Critical Public Policy Lessons, (2005)
  5. Miller R., Hurricane Katrina: Communications & Infrastructure Impacts, In Conference Proceedings’ Threats at our Threshold’, Consortium for Homeland Defense and Security. January (2006)
  6. (Jan 2013)
  7. (Jan-2013)
  8. Erjongmanee S., Ji C., Stokely J. and Hightower N., Inference of Network-Service Disruption upon Natural Disasters (2005)
  9. (Jan-2013)
  10. Pace P. and Aloi G., Disaster monitoring and mitigation using aerospace technologies and integrated telecommunication networks, Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE, 23(4), 3-9, (2008)
  11. Mohammed A. and Yang Z., Broadband communications and applications from High Altitude Platforms, International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, 1(3), (2009)
  12. Djuknic G.M., Freidenfelds J. and Okunev Y., Establishing wireless communications services via high-altitude aeronautical platforms: a concept whose time has come?, Communications Magazine, IEEE,35.9, 128-135 (1997)
  13. Elabdin Z., Elshaikh O., Islam R., Ismail A.P. and Khalifa O.O., High Altitude Platform for Wireless Communications and Other Services, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, ICECE '06. International Conference, 432-438, (2006)
  14. Mohammed H. A. and Pillai P., Performance Evaluation of a WiMAX Enabled HAPs-Satellite Hybrid System, PGNet 2009 Conference, (2009)
  15. Richharia M. and Westbrook L.D., Satellite systems for personal applications: Concepts and technology, A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication, 22,(2011)
  16. Park J., Ku B., Kim Y. and Ahn D., Technology development for wireless communications system using stratospheric platform in Korea, Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2002. The 13th IEEE International Symposium,, 15-18 (2002)
  17. Ahmed B.T., Ramón M.C. and HARO-ARIET L.D., UMTS-HSDPA in High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) communications, Turk J Elec Engin15.1, (2007)
  18. Yeh J., Chen J. and Lee C., WLAN standards, Potentials, IEEE, 22 (4), 16-22, (2003)
  19. Labiod H., Afifi H. and Santis C. De., Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee and WiMAX, Springer, (2007)
  20. Shivlal M. and Kumar S.U.,Performance Analysis of Secure Wireless Mesh Networks, Res. J. Recent Sci.,1(3), 80-85(2012)
  21. Ahson S. A., WiMAX: standards and security, CRC pres,(2007)
  22. (Feb-2013)
  23. Yang Z. and Mohammed A., Evaluation of WiMAX Uplink Performance in High Altitude Platforms Cellular System, Wireless Communication Systems, 2007. ISWCS 2007. 4th International Symposium, 834(837), 17-19, (2007)
  24. Ahmed B.T., “WiMAX in High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) Communications”. Wireless Technology, 2006. The 9th European Conference 245(248), 10-12, (2006)
  25. Likitthanasate P., Grace D. and Mitchell P.D., Coexistence performance of high altitude platform and terrestrial systems sharing a common downlink WiMAX frequency band, Electronics Letters, 41(15), 858-860, (2005)
  26. Yang Z., Mohammed A., Hult T. and Grace D., Assessment of Coexistence Performance for WiMAX Broadband in HAP Cellular System and Multiple-Operator Terrestrial Deployments, Wireless Communication Systems, 2007. ISWCS 2007, 4th International Symposium, 195(199), 17-19, (2007)
  27. Dessouky M., Sharshar H. and Albagory Y., Design of high altitude platforms cellular communications, Progress in Electromagnetics ResearchPIER 67, 251-261 (2007)
  28. Davey L., Butler R., Buchanan R., Phillips W. R., Dr. Lee Y.C., High altitude platform stations for Australia, Telecommunications Journal of Australia 58, 29.1 -29.8, (2008)
  29. Ahmed B. T. and Ramon M. C., WiMAX in high altitude platforms (HAPs) communications over large cities, Systems, Signals and Devices, 2009. SSD '09. 6th International Multi-Conference, 1-4, (2009)
  30., (June-2013)
  31. Reynaud L., Rasheed T. and Kandeepan S., An integrated Aerial Telecommunications Network that supports emergency traffic, Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC), 2011 14th International Symposium,1(5), 3-7, (2011)
  32. Rao J. and Biswas S., WSN17-4: Controlled Node Mobility: A Mechanism for Energy Load Distribution in Sensor Networks, Global Telecommunications Conference, 2006. GLOBECOM '06. IEEE, 1-6, (2006)
  33. Qiantori A., Sutiono A.B., Hariyanto H., Suwa H. and Ohta T., “An emergency medical communications system by low altitude platform at the early stages of a natural disaster in Indonesia”. Journal of medical systems36.1, 41-52, (2012)
  34. Owada Y., Inoue M., Miura R., Harai H. and Tsuji H., Design for Disaster-Tolerant and Dependable Network Architecture, Information Processing Society of Japa,. (2012)
  35. Mase K., “How to deliver your message from/to a disaster area”. Communications Magazine, IEEE , 49(1), 52-57, (2011)
  36. Mase K., “Communication service continuity under a large-scale disaster: Providing a wireless multihop network and shelter communication service for a disaster area under the Great East Japan Earthquake”, Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference, 6314-6318, (2012)
  37. Nelson C.B., Steckler B.D. and Stamberger J.A., “The Evolution of Hastily Formed Networks for Disaster Response: Technologies, Case Studies, and Future Trends”, Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2011 IEEE, 467(475), (2011)
  38. Nelson A., Sigal I. and Zambrano D., Media, information systems and communities: lessons from Haiti, (2010)
  39., (2013)