International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Harnessing Floodwater of Hill Torrents for Improved Spate Irrigation System Using Geo-Informatics Approach

Author Affiliations

  • 1Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang, MALAYSIA,
  • 2Computer System and Software Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, MALAYSIA
  • 3Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
  • 4Centre for Earth Resources Research and Management, University Malaysia Pahang, MALAYSIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 3, Issue (1), Pages 14-22, January,2 (2014)


In semi-arid regions, sustainability of agricultural system is most demanding in view of economical approaches for agricultural water management and its ensured availability. Flood flows of hill torrents have potential prospects for development to meet growing demands of water for agriculture. However to harvest this potential through traditional systems is not a success story. This paper discusses GIS and Remote Sensing tools application as a strategy to explore viable and economical prospective of floodwater management for spate irrigation. The fundamental problem is the optimal conservation of hill torrents flows and management of these water resources. To tackle this problem, a study for reservoir site selection was carried out. In this study, we present cost effective approach to mitigate the flood hazard while conserving this floodwater as irrigated water supply to minimize drought threats for a spate irrigation system. The novelty of study is development of a methodology for estimation of water holding capacity for reservoir by using geo-informatics tools. The objectives of paper are i. to demarcate the potential catchments of spate irrigation system and ii. floodwater storage by siting reservoir with geo-informatics tools. As an auxiliary output, a geo database is generated for intend to use its attribute data and spatial data for future research projects. This geo database include data layers of satellite imagery, GPS aided ground control points, irrigation network, catchments, administrative boundaries, proposed reservoir site location and digitized linear and polygon features. The results of this study depict that agricultural water management would be carried out efficiently with the use of developed methodology. The reliability of proposed reservoir solution is higher due to the use of high resolution datasets.


  1. Triana E. and Labadie J.W., GIS-Based Decision Support System for Improved Operations and Efficiency Conservation in Large-Scale Irrigation Systems, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 1(1), 857–867 (2012)
  2. Komakech H.C., Mul M.L., van der Zaag P., and Rwehumbiza F.B.R., Water allocation and management in an emerging spate irrigation system in Makanya catchment, Tanzania, Agricultural Water Management, 98(11), 1719–1726 (2011)
  3. Belaqziz S., Khabba S., Er-Raki S., Jarlan L., Le Page M., Kharrou M.H., M. El Adnani and a. Chehbouni, A new irrigation priority index based on remote sensing data for assessing the networks irrigation scheduling, Agricultural Water Management, 119, 1–9 (2013)
  4. Lawrence P. and Van Steenbergen F., Improving Community Spate Irrigation, Report OD 154, (2005)
  5. Verheijen O. and Van Aarst S., Spate Irrigation, Livelihood Improvement and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change, International Fund for Agricultural Development, 1–48 (2008)
  6. Ahmad S., Indigenous Water Harvesting Systems In Pakistan, Islamabad, Water Resources Research Institute National Agricultural Research Centre, (2000)
  7. Ahmad S., Rod-Kohi System Development and Management In Pakistan – A National Project, Water Resources Research Institute National Agricultural ResearchCentre, Islamabad, (2001)
  8. Tesfai M., A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea, Soil Use and Management, 18, 77–78 (2002)
  9. Saher F.N. and Mehdi M.R., Selection of Hydraulic Structures for Spate Irrigation, in International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage Workshop on Capacity Building and Training in the Water Sector, 69–77 (2008)
  10. van Steenbergen F., Lawrence P., Haile A.M., Salman M. and Faurčs J.M., Economics of spate irrigation, in Guidelines on spate irrigation, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010)
  11. Ahmad M.D., Turral H. and Nazeer A., Diagnosing irrigation performance and water productivity through satellite remote sensing and secondary data in a large irrigation system of Pakistan, Agricultural Water Management, 96(4), 551–564 (2009)
  12. Ahmad H., Bokhari J.I., Tallat Q. and Siddiqui M., Flashflood risk assessment in Pakistan, in Pakistan Engineering Congress, 71st Annual Session Proceedings, 707, 696–708 (2011)
  13. Javed M.Y., Nadeem M. and Javed F., Technical Assistance Consultant’s Report on Pakistan: Additional Works for the Preparation of Hill Torrent Management Plan (2007)
  14. Yoshikawa N., Nagao N. and Misawa S., Evaluation of the flood mitigation effect of a Paddy Field Dam project, Agricultural Water Management, 97(2), 259–270 (2010)
  15. Wagner I. and Zalewski M., Effect of hydrological patterns of tributaries on biotic processes in a lowland reservoir — consequences for restoration, Ecological Engineering, 16(1), 79–90 (2000)
  16. NESPAK, Master Feasibility Studies for Flood Management of Hill Torrents of Pakistan, Supporting Volume-III, Punjab Province, National Engineering Services Pakistan (1998)
  17. NESPAK, National Flood Commission Plan, Lahore, (1978)
  18. Nawaz Khan A. and Ali Z., Evaluation of the Chashma Right Bank Irrigation Project and Strategy Formulation Using the Swot Approach, Irrigation and Drainage, 61(4), 464–476 (2012)
  19. Reuter H.I., Nelson A. and Jarvis A., An evaluation of voidfilling interpolation methods for SRTM data, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(9), 983–1008 (2007)
  20. Rabus B., Eineder M., Roth A., and Bamler R., The shuttle radar topography mission - a new class of digital elevation models acquired by spaceborne radar, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 57(4), 241–262 (2003)
  21. van Steenbergen F., Understanding the sociology of spate irrigation: cases from Baluchistan, Journal of Arid Environments, 35(2), 349–365 (1997)
  22. Jamali H. and Hufty M., Transformation or degradation: transition from karez to tubewell irrigation and its implications for power relations and social structure in Baluchistan, Pakistan, in 13th IASC Biennial International Conference, 1–18 (2011)
  23. Bahamish A.A., Final Report On Legal Survey of Existing Traditional Water Rights in the Spate Irrigation Systems in WadiZabid and WadiTuban, (2004)
  24. Christine P., Jerzy S., Hanna W. and Krzysztof R., Dynamic slowdown: A flood mitigation strategy complying with the integrated management concept – implementation in a small mountainous catchment, International Journal of River Basin Management, 3(2), 75–85 (2005)
  25. Bekele W. and Drake L., Soil and water conservation decision behaviour of subsistence farmers in the Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: a case study of the Hunde-Lafto area, Ecological Economics, 46(3), 437–451 (2003)
  26. K. El-Askari, Investigating the potential for efficient water management in spate irrigation schemes using the Spate Management Model, Journal of Applied Irrigation Science, 40(2), 177–192 (2005)
  27. Minár J., Mentlík P., Jedlika K. and Barka I., Geomorphological Information System: Idea and Options For Practical Implementation, Eomorphologic Informatics System–prototype, 247–266 (2005)
  28. Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI), National Agriculture Research Council (NARC), Islamabad Issues / Problems, (1991)
  29. Rehabilitation L. and Oosterbaan R., Spate Irrigation: Water Harvesting and Agricultural Land Development Options in the NWFR of Pakistan Water Harvesting and Agricultural Land Development Options in the NWFR of Pakistan Cover image, 1–27 (2010)
  30. FFC, Pakistan Water Sector Strategy, Medium Term Investment Plan, Volume 3, Islamabad, Pakistan, (2002)