International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Dot Elisa: Immunological Technique for Pesticide Residue Analysis

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 2, Issue (ISC-2012), Pages 5-11, February,2 (2013)


Pesticides are used globally for enhancing crop yields. However, their excessive use/misuse, especially in the developing countries, results in widespread food and environmental contamination. Therefore current methods such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography have been used successfully, with great sensitivity and reliability, for analysis of many pesticides. However, these classical methods require a high capital expenditure and skilled analysts including time-consuming sample preparation steps. Therefore, there is a growing demand for more rapid and economical methods for determining pesticide residues. Immunoassays have recently been emerging as an alternative to traditional methods to meet such demands of fast, sensitive and cost-effective tool for pesticide residue analysis. The dot ELISA is a qualitative ELISA test, which can be performed more quickly without the need of equipments or technical expertise. Dot ELISA is a micro ELISA, utilizing antigen “dotted” onto nitrocellulose filter discs that has been used for more than 25 years. Because of its relative speed and simplicity, the dot ELISA is an attractive alternative to standard ELISA .This technique can even detect at nano-gram scale among targeted compounds in situ.


  1. Glick B.R. and Pasternak J.J., Molecular biotechnology, Ed. American Society for Microbiology., Washington, D.C. (1998)
  2. Sherry J., Environmental immunoassays and other bio analytical methods, Overview and update, Chemosphere., 34, 10-11(1997)
  3. Walsh G., Headon D.R., Protein biotechnology. Ed. By John Wiley and Sons LTD, (1994)
  4. Herzog D.P., Immunoassays for environmental contaminants (Pesticides) in food and water, Proceedings of Food Contaminants Workshop., AOAC, Washington, D.C., 1-26 (1997)
  5. Gosling J.P., A decade of development in immunoassay methodology,Clin.Chem., 36, 1408 (1990)
  6. Langone J.J.and Van vunalis H., Immunochemical techniques. Part D. Selected immunoassays, Methods Enzymology., 84, (1982)
  7. Marco M.P., Gee S. and Hammock B.D., Immunochemical techniques for environmental analysis. II Antibodies production and immunoassay development, Trens Anal.Chem., 14, 415 (1995)
  8. Stryer L., Biochemistry, 4th ed.; W.H. Freeman Company: New York (1995)
  9. Ekins R., A shadow over immunoassay, Nature, 340, 256 (1989)
  10. Langone J.J. and Van vunalis H., Immunochemical techniques. Part E. Monoclonal antibodies and general immunoassay methods, Methods Enzymology., 92, (1983)
  11. Langone J.J. and Van vunalis H., Immunochemical techniques. Part f. selected immunoassays, Methods Enzymology, 94, (1986)
  12. Samoilovich S.R., Dugan C.B. and Macario A.J.L., Hybridoma technology: new development of practical interest, J.Imm.Meth., 101, 153 (1987)
  13. Walsh G. and Headon D.R., Protein biotechnology Ed. By John Wiley and Sons LTD (1996)
  14. Dankwardt A., Immunochemical assays in pesticide analysis, In: Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry., Meyers, R. A. (Ed.), Wiley: Chichester, UK,1-26 (2001)
  15. Karu A., Hybridoma Facility, College of Natural Resources, University of California-Berkeley, CA, personal communication, June 28, (1988)
  16. Mumma R. and Hunter K., Potential of Immunoassay in Monitoring Pesticide Residues in Foods, OTA commissioned paper, Spring (1988)
  17. Ton D.W., Yang H.S. and Wang J.Y., Recent advances in the synthesis of artificial antigen and its application in the detection of pesticide residue, American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences., 2(2), 88-93 (2007)
  18. Cho Y.A., Lee V., Park E.Y. and Lee Y.T., et al., Development of an ELISA for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos, Bull Korean Chem Soc., 23, 481-487 (2002)
  19. Vanderlaan M., Watkins B.E. and Stanker L., Environmental Monitoring by Immunoassay, Environ. Sci. Technol., 22(3), 247-254 (1988) , 5-11 (2012)
  20. Hammock B., Gee S., Cheung P., et al., Utility of Immunoassay in pesticide Trace Analysis, London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, Pesticide Science and Biotechnology., 29(2-3), 105-29 (1988)
  21. Hunter K., Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems Company, Rockville, MD, personal communication, Apr. 15, (1988)
  22. Leenaars P.P.A.M., Hendriksen, C.F.M., Leeuw W.A. and Carat F., et al., The production of polyclonalantibodies in laboratory animals, The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop., ECVAM, Ispra, Italy, 35, 79-102 (1999)
  23. Pappas M.G., Recent applications of the Dot-ELISA in immunoparasitology, Vet parasitol., Sep, 29(2-3),105-29 (1988)
  24. Pappas M.G., Haikowski R., Cannon L.T. Sr. and Hockmever W.T., Dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA): comparison with standard ELISA and complement fixation assays for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis, Vet parasitol., june, 14(3-4), 239-49 (1984)
  25. Zhenchao W., Dandan Y., Xiangyang Li ., Mengjiao Z. and Zhuo C., et al., The Development and Application of a Dot-ELISA Assay for Diagnosis of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Disease in the Field, Viruses, 4, 167-183(2012)
  26. Zheng H., Tao Zheng H., Cheng Weng-F. and Willy F., Comparison of Dot-Elisa with Sandwich-Elisa for the Detection of Circulating Antigens in Patients with Bancroftian Filariasis ,J Trop Med Hy., 42, 546-549 (1990)