6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Speciation and Toxicity of Arsenic: A Human Carcinogen

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Humanities and Science, Govt. Polytechnic College, Nowgong, Chhatarpur, MP, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Physics, Sushila Devi Bansal College of Engineering, Indore, MP, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 2, Issue (ISC-2012), Pages 45-53, February,2 (2013)

Abstract

Arsenic is an element found in nature in rocks, soils, water and air in fact, it is one of the most common elements on earth. Arsenic is widely distributed throughout Earth's crust, generally as arsenic sulfide or as metal arsenates and arsenites. The major source of arsenic pollution in the environment is the smelting of ores such as those of gold, silver, copper and others. Arsenic from these sources is distributed in the air, water, soil and finds its way into the human system by way of direct inhalation or through contamination of food and consumer products. The world health organisation (WHO) recommended that many authorities reduce their regulatory limits and it has established a provisional guideline value of 10 μg/l for arsenic in drinking water. While arsenic has been used historically in industry in fertilizers and preservatives, it is probably best known as a poison, toxic to humans who ingest it. Large doses are fatal relatively quickly, while smaller doses over time can cause diseases such as several types of cancer and skin disorders. Arsenic can become an environmental hazard when it is weathered from local geologic units and enters the groundwater supply. In the world today, many populations are at risk for arsenic poisoning due to exposure from contaminated drinking water. Arsenic contamination of drinking water is presently a worldwide epidemic. Contaminated drinking water has been found in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, China, Hungary, West Bengal, Bangladesh and Vietnam. Of these regions, West Bengal and Bangladesh are most seriously affected in terms of the size of the population at risk and the magnitude of the health problems. An estimated 300,000 people in West Bengal alone suffer from arsenic-induced skin lesions. Serious illnesses related to arsenic such as melanosis, keratosis, cancer, and gangrene have been reported in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In the process of arsenic metabolism, inorganic arsenic is methylated to monomethylarsonic acid and finally to dimethylarsinic acid, followed by excretion through urine. Thus, arsenic exposure may cause DNA hypomethylation due to continuous methyl depletion, facilitating aberrant gene expression that results in carcinogenesis. Further, though arsenic is nonmutagenic, it interacts synergistically with genotoxic agents in the production of mutations, and also induces chromosome abnormalities and cell proliferation.

References

  1. Chakraborti D., Rahman M.M., Paul K., Sengupta M.K., Chowdhury U.K., Lodh D., et al. Arsenic calamity in India and Bangladesh sub-continent-whom to blame, Talanta, 58, 3-22 (2002)
  2. Datta D.V., Mitra S.K., Chhuttani P.N. and Chakravarti R.N., Chronic oral arsenic intoxication as a possible aetiological factor in idiopathic portal hypertension (non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis) in India, Gut, 20, 378-84 (1979)
  3. Garai R., Chakraborty A.K., Dey S.B. and Saha K.C., Chronic arsenic poisoning from tubewell water, J Indian Med Assoc, 82, 34-5 (1984)
  4. IARC, Some drinking-water disinfectants and contaminants, including Arsenic Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Lyon, France, WHO, 84, 68-70 (2004)
  5. Nickson R., Sengupta C., Mitra P., Dave S.N., Banerjee A.K. and Bhattacharya A. et al, Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India, J. Environ. Sci. Health, 42, 1707-18 (2007)
  6. Ravenscroft P., McArthur J.M. and Hoque B.A., Geochemical and Palaeohydrological Controls on Pollution of Groundwater by Arsenic. In: Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects IV. W.R. Chappell, C.O. Abernathy &R. Calderon (Eds), Elsevier Science Ltd. Oxford, (2001)
  7. Kinniburgh D.G., Smedley P.L., Trafford J.M., Milne C.J., Hug S.M.I., Ahmed K.M. and Burden S., The National Hydrochemical Survey. In: Kinniburgh D.G. and Smedley P.L. (Eds.), Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Bangladesh. Volume 2: Final Report. British Geological Survey Report, WC/00/19. British Geological Survey, UK (6), 77-103 (2001)
  8. Bhattacharya P., Frisbie S.H., Smith E., Naidu R., Jacks G. and Sarkar B., Arsenic in the environment, a global perspective. In: Sarkar B, editor, Handbook of heavy metals in the environment, New York: Marcell Dekker, 147-215 (2002)
  9. Smedley Pl, Kinniburgh DG, A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters, Appl. Geochem., 17, 517-68 (2002)
  10. Mandal B.K. and Suzuki K.T., Arsenic around the world: a review, Talanta, 58, 201-35(2002)
  11. Yan-Chu H., Arsenic in Environment, Part I: Cycling and Characterization (ed. Nriagu, J. O.), John Wiley & Sons Inc., 17–49 (1994)
  12. Report of World Health Organization, Geneva, published by joint sponsorship under the United Nations Environmental Programme, International Labour Organization, and World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 18 (1981)
  13. Azcue J.M. and Nriagu J.O., Arsenic in Environment. Part I: Cycling and Characterization (ed. Nriagu, J. O.), John Wiley and Sons Inc.,1–15 (1994)
  14. Bhumbla D.K. and Keefer R.F., Arsenic in Environment. Part I: Cycling and Characterization (ed. Nriagu, J. O.), John Wiley & Sons Inc., 51–82 (1994)
  15. Driehaus W, Seith R, Jekel M (1995) , Oxidation of arsenate (III) with manganese dioxides in water treatment, Water Res., 29(1), 297-305 (1995)
  16. Jain CK, Ali I (2000) , Arsenic: Occurrence, toxicity and speciation techniques, Water Res., 34, 4304-4312 (2000)
  17. Baeyens W., de Brauwere A., Brion N., De Gieter M., Leermakers M., Arsenic speciation in the River Zenne, Belgium, Sci. Total Environ., 384, 409-419 (2007)
  18. Smedley PL, Kinniburg DG, A review of the source, behavior and distribution of arsenic in natural waters, Appl. Geochem., 17, 517-568, (2002) , 1-6 (2013)
  19. World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Third Edition Incorporating The First And Second Addenda, Vol. 1, Recommendations World Health Organization, WHO Press, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 306 (2008)
  20. Bard A.J., Parsons R. and Jordan J., Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, Marcel Dekker, New York (1985)
  21. Ali I., Aboul-Enein H.Y., Speciation of arsenic and chromium metal ions by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, Chemosphere, 48, 275-278 (2002)
  22. Bhumbla D.K. and Keefer R.F., Arsenic in Environment, Part I: Cycling and Characterization (ed. Nriagu, J. O.), John Wiley & Sons Inc., 51–82 (1994)
  23. Chopra Pawan C. and Rodcline A., Arsenic: Exposure and Health Effects (eds Abernathy, C. O., Calderon, R. L. and Chappel, W. R.), Chapman & Hall UK, 69–77 (1997)
  24. Guo H.R., Arsenic: Exposure and Health Effects (eds Abernathy, C. O., Calderon, R. L. and Chappel, W. R.), Chapman & Hall, UK, 243–259 (1997)
  25. Newsletter of Indian Training Network and All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata, 3, 1–12 (1996)
  26. Report of World Health Organization, Geneva, published by joint sponsorship under the United Nations Environmental Programme, International Labour Organization, and World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 18 (1981)