International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Variability in Populations of Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata, (Lamarck, 1822) in selected locations from The Philippines

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, PHILIPPINES
  • 2 Consultant, Ministry of Primary Industries, Department of Agriculture, Koronivia Research Station, P.O. Box 77, Nausori, REPUBLIC OF FIJI and Concurrently Adjunct Professor, Center for Research and Development, Angeles University Foundation, 2009 Angeles City, Pampanga, PHILIPPINES
  • 3 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Baguio, 2600 Baguio City, PHILIPPINES

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 2, Issue (8), Pages 12-19, August,2 (2013)


The Pomacea canaliculata, also known as Golden Apple Snail (GAS), is considered to be a variable species with shell shape variability despite conflicting environments. Samples of GAS were collected from different locations and ecological environments in the Philippines to describe the extent of variations in shell shapes using conventional measurements and the tools of geometric morphometrics. Using TPS software, the GAS samples collected were landmarked and processed. The output data was then analyzed to determine the differences in the shell among different populations with respect to their sexes. Results showed that among populations, the main variations in the shell shape occurred in the apex of shell aperture and operculum. It also showed that there were no high variations between the shell shape among populations of male and females. The results indicate that shell shape variations among populations can be affected geographically. Ecological factors such as substrates and water flow could have affected also the growth patterns of the shell.


  1. Cowie R.H., Invertebrate invasions on Pacific islands and the replacement of unique native faunas: a synthesis of the land and freshwater snails, Biological Invasions,3(3), 119-136 (2002)
  2. Cazzaniga N.J., Old species and new concepts in the taxonomy of Pomacea (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae), Biocell, 26,71-81 (2002)
  3. Partridge L., Coyne J.A., Bergmann ’ s rule in ectotherms: is it adaptive?, Evolution 51: 632 – 635 (1997)
  4. Blanckenhorn W.U. Stillwell R.C., Young K.A., Fox C.W., Ashton K.G., When Rensch meets Bergmann: does sexual size dimorphism change systematically with latitude?, Evolution, 60, 2004–2011 (2006)
  5. Stillwell R.C., Morse G.E., Fox C.W., Geographic variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of a seed-feeding beetle, The American Naturalist, 170,358-369 (2007)
  6. Gatz A.J., Community organization in fishes as indicated by morphological features, Evolution60, 711-718 (1979)
  7. Losos J.B., Sinerov B., The effect of morphology and perch size on sprint performance in Anolis lizards, Journal of Experimental Biology,145, 23-30 (1989)
  8. Rohlf F. J., tpsDIG. Version 1.40. N.Y.: Software. State Univ. at Stony Brook (2004)
  9. Cowie R.H., Hayes K.A., Thiengo S.C, What are aplle snails? Confused taxonomy and some preliminary resolution. In: R.C. Joshi and L.S. Sebastian (eds.), Global advances in ecology and management of golden apple snails, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija: Philippine Rice Reseach Institute, 2-24 (2006)
  10. Dvorak V., Aytekin A.M., Alten B., Skarupova S., Votypka J., Volf P., A comparison of the intraspecific variability of Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 (Diptera: Psychodidae), Journal of Vector Ecology, (31)2, 229-238 (2005)
  11. Bookstein F.L., Morphometric tools for landmark data. New York: Cambridge University Press, (1991)
  12. Rohlf J.F., TpsRelw (version 1.46). New York: Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook, (2008)
  13. Frieß M., An Application of the Relative Warps Analysis to Problems Human Palaeontoloy – With Notes on Raw Data Quality, Image Anal Stereol,22, 63-72 (2003)
  14. Hammer Ø., Harper D.A.T., Ryan P.D., PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis, Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1), 9 (2001)
  15. Marquez E.J., Knowles L.L., SAGE: Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data. Mammals Division. University of Michigan, Available at: (2007)
  16. Fordyce J.A., The evolutionary consequences of ecological interactions mediated through phenotypic plasticity, Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 2377-2383 (2006)
  17. Utterback, W.I. The Naiades of Missouri. Reprinted from American Midland Naturalist, (1916)
  18. Watters G.T., Form and function of unionoidean shell sculpture and shape (Bivalvia). American Malacological Bulletin, 11, 1-20 (1994)
  19. Adams, C.C. Variation in Io. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 49, 208-225 (1900)
  20. DeWitt T.J., Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity: tests with predator-induced morphology and life history in a freshwater snail, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 11, 465-480 (1998)
  21. Minton R.L., Norwood A.P., Hayes D.M., Quantifying phenotypic gradients in freshwater snails: a case study in Lithasia (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae), Hydrobiologia, 605, 173-182 (2008)