6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Ultrasound assisted semiconductor mediated catalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water: Comparative efficacy of ZnO, TiO2 and ZnO-TiO2

Author Affiliations

  • 1School of Environmental Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-682022 INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 1, Issue (ISC-2011), Pages 191-201, (2012)


Sonocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water is investigated using ZnO, TiO2 and combination of ZnO and TiO2(ZnO-TiO2) as catalysts, with phenol as the test substrate. The efficacy of the catalysts is in the order ZnO-TiO2 > ZnO > TiO2.The degradation in presence of ZnO-TiO2 is more than the sum of the degradation achieved in presence of the individual oxidesunder identical conditions, thereby demonstrating a synergistic effect. The ratio of the components in the mixed oxide isoptimized. The kinetics of the degradation as well as the influence of various parameters such as catalyst loading, concentrationof the pollutant and pH on the degradation efficiency is evaluated. Maximum degradation is observed in the acidic pH for allcatalysts. H2O2 is formed in the reaction and it undergoes simultaneous decomposition resulting in periodic increase anddecrease in its concentration. This observation of the phenomenon of oscillation in the concentration of H2O2 is the first of itskind in sonocatalytic systems. A mechanism for the degradation of phenol is proposed based on the observations as well as theconcurrent formation and decomposition of H2O2.


  1. Ying-Shih M, Chi-Fanga S, Jih-Gaw L, Degradation ofcarbofuran in aqueous solution by ultrasound and Fentonprocesses: Effect of system parameters and kineticstudy, J Hazardous Mater., 178, 320-325 (2010)
  2. Zouaghi R, David B. Suptil J, Djebbar K, Boutiti A,Guittonneau S, Sonochemical and sonocatalyticdegradation of monolinuron in water, Ultrason.Sonochem. 18, 1107-1112 (2011)
  3. Torres R.A, Abdelmalek F, Combet E, PetrierC,Pulgarin C, A comparative study of ultrasoniccavitation and Fentonís reagent for bisphenol A:Degradation in deionised and natural waters, J Hazard.Mater 146, 546-555 (2007)
  4. Devipriya S, Yesodharan S, Photocatalytic degradationof pesticide pollutants in water, Solar Energy Mater andSolar Cells, 86, 309-348 (2005)
  5. Malato S, Blanco J, Alarcon D.C, Maldonado M.I,Fernandez-Ibanez P, Gernjak W, Photocatalyticdecontamination and disinfection of water with solarcollectors, Catalysis Today 122, 137-149 (2007)
  6. Joseph C.G, Puma G.L, Bono A, Krishniah D, Sonophotocatalysis in advanced oxidation process: Ashort review, Ultrason., Sonochem. 16, 583-589 (2009)
  7. Gogate P.R, Treatment of wastewater streams containingphenolic compounds using hybrid techniques based oncavitation: a review of the current status and the wayforward, Ultrason. Sonochem.15, 1-15 (2008)
  8. Torres-Palma R.A, Nieto J.I, Combet E, Petrier C,Pulgarin C, An innovative ultrasaound, Fe2+ and TiO2photo assisted process for bisphenol a mineralization, Water Res. 44, 2245-2252 (2010)
  9. Davydov L, Reddy E.P, France P, Smirniotis P, Sonophotocatalytic destruction of organic contaminantsin aqueous systems on TiO2 powders, Appl. Catal.B:Environmental 32, 95-105 (2001)
  10. Chen Y.C, Smirniotis P, Enhancement of photocatalyticdegradation of phenol and chlorophenols by ultrasound, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41,5958- 5965 (2002)
  11. Kritikos D.E, Xekoukoulotakis N.P, Psillakis E,Mantzavinos D, Photocatalytic degradation of reactiveblack 5 in aqueous solutionds: Effect of operatingconditions and coupling with ultrasound irradiation, Water Res. 41, 2236-2246 (2007)
  12. Nepiras E.A, Acoustic cavitation: An introduction, Ultrasonics, 22, 25-40 (1984)
  13. Poulios I, Avranas A, Rekliti E, Zouboulis A, Photocatalytic oxidation of Auramine O in the presenceof semiconducting oxides, J Chem Technol. Biotechnol.75, 205-212 (2000)
  14. Sakthivel S, Neppolian B, Shankar M V, Arabindoo B,Palanichamy M, Murugesan V, Solar photocatalyticdegradation of azodye: Comparison of photocatalyticefficiency of ZnO and TiO2, Solar Energy Mater. andSolar Cells. 77, 65-82 (2003)
  15. Anju S.G, Yesodharan S, Yesodharan E.P, Semiconductor mediated sonophotocatalytic degradationof organic pollutants in water, Proc. 23rd Kerala ScienceCongress, Trivandrum 156-157 (2011)
  16. Wang J, Jiang Z, Zhang L, Kang P, Xie Y, Lv Y, Xu R,Zhang X, Sonocatalytic degradation of some dyestuffsand comparison of catalytic activities of nanosizedTiO2, nano-sized ZnO and composite TiO2/ZnOpowders under ultrasonic irradiation, UltrasonicsSonochem. 16, 225-231 (2009)
  17. Song L, Chen C, Zhang S, Sonocatalytic performance ofTb7O12/TiO2 composite under ultrasonic irradiation, Ultrason. Sonochem. 18, 713-717 (2011)
  18. Jain S, Yamgar R, Jayram R.V, Photolytic andphotocatalytic degradation of atrazine in the presence ofactivated carbon, Chem. Eng. Journal, 148, 342-347(2009)
  19. Tuziuti T, Yasui K, Sivakumar M, Iida Y, Correlationbetween acoustic cavitation nopise and yielenhancement of sonochemical reaction by particleaddition, J Phys Chem. A 109. 4869-4872 (2005)
  20. Pandit A.B, Gogate P.R, Majumdar S, Ultrasonicdegradation of 2.4.6 trichlorophenol in presence of TiO2catalyst, Ultrason.Sonochem. 8, 227-231(2001)
  21. Hamdaoui O, Naffrechoux E, Adsorption kinetics of 4-chlorophenol on granulated activated carbon in thepresence of high frequency ultrasound, Ultrason.Sonochem 16, 15-22 (2009)
  22. Beckett M.A, Hua I, Impact of ultrasonic frequency onaqueous sonoluminescence and sonochemistry, J.Phys.Chem A 105, 3796-3802 (2001)
  23. Chand R, Ince N.H, Gogate P.R, Bremner D.H, Phenoldegradation using 20,300 and 520 kHz ultrasonicreactors with hydrogen peroxide, ozone and zerovalentmetals, Separation and Purification Technology 67, 103-109 (2009)
  24. Kuriacose J.C, Ramakrishnan V, Yesodharan E.P, Photoinduced catalytic reactions of alcohols on ZnOsuspensions in cyclohexane: Oscillation in theconcentration of H2O2 formed, Indian J. Chem. 19A,254-256 (1978)
  25. Hoffmann A.J, Carraway E.R, Hoffmann M.R, Photocatalytic production of H2O2 and Organicperoxides` on quantum sized semiconductor colloids, Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 776-785 (1994)
  26. Rabindranathan S, Devipriya S,Yesodharan S, Photocatalytic degradation of phosphamidon onsemiconductor oxides, J Hazard. Mater. 102, 217-229(2003)
  27. Daneshvar N, Aber S, Dorraji M.S.S, Khataee A.R, Rasoulifard, Preparation and investigation ofphotocatalytic properties of ZnO nanocrystals: Effect ofoperational parameters and kinetic study, World Acad ofSci. Eng. And Technol. 29, 267-272 (2007)
  28. Zheng W, Maurin M, Tarr M A, Enhancement ofsonochemical degradation of phenol using hydrogenatom scavengers, Ultrason.Sonochem 12, 313-317(2005)
  29. Goel M, Hongqiang H, Majumdar A.S, Ray M.B, Sonochemical decomposition of volatile and nonvolatileorganic compound: A comparative study, Water Res. 38,4247-4261 (2004)
  30. Marouani S, Hamdaoui O, Saoudi F, Chiha M, Sonochemical degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueousphase: effect of additives, Chem. Eng. J. 158, 550-557(2010)
  31. Madhavan J, Grieser F, Ashokkumar M, Combinedadvanced oxidation processes for the synergisticdegradation of ibuprofen in aqueous environments, JHazardous Mater 178, 202-208 (2010)
  32. Wang J, Jiang Y, Zhang Z, Zhao G, Zhang G, Ma T, SunW, Investigations on the sonocatalytic degradation ofCongo red catalysed by nanometer rutile powder and various influencing factors, Desalination 216, 196-208(2007)
  33. Kaur S, Singh V, Visible light induced sonocatalyticdegradation of Reactive Red dye 198 using dyesensitized TiO2, Ultrason. Sonochem. 14, 531-537(2007)
  34. Vijaya laxmi P.N, Saritha Rambabu P.N, Himabindu V, Anjaneyulu Y, Sonochemical degradation of 2 chloro-5methyl phenol assisted by TiO2 and H2O2, J HazardMater. 174, 151-155 (2010)
  35. Ou X.H, Lo S.L, Wu C. H, Exploring the interparticularelectron transfer process in the photocatalytic oxidationof 4-chlorophenol, J Hazardous Mater. 137, 1362-1370(2006)
  36. Zhow S, Ray A.K, Kinetic studies for photocatalyticdegradation of Eosin B on a thin film of Titaniumdioxide, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 42, 6020-6033(2003)
  37. Neppolian B, Ciceri L, Bianchi C L, Grieser F, Ashokkumar M, Sonophotocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol using Bi2O3/TiZrO4 as a visible lightresponsive photocatalyst, Ultrason. Sonochem 18, 135-139 (2011)
  38. Davydov L, Smirniotis P.G, Quantification of theprimary processes in aqueous heterogeneousphotocatalysis using single stage oxidation reactions, JCatal. 191, 105-112 (2000)