6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Role of Carmine in Tween 60 -Ascorbic Acid System for Energy Conversion

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Chemistry, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 1, Issue (ISC-2011), Pages 62-66, (2012)


The photogalvanic effect studied in H-cell containing Ascorbic acid as reductant and Carmine as photosensitizer. The photopotential and photocurrent generated in cell were 884.0 mV and 190.0 μA, respectively. The observed conversion efficiency 0.8184% and the maximum output (power) of the cell was 85.12 μW. The photogalvanic cell can be used at this power level for 170 minutes. The effect of different parameters of electrical output of the cell was investigated and a cell photoreaction mechanism for the generation of the photocurrent in this photogalvanic cell has also been proposed.


  1. Crabtree G.W. and Lewis N.S., Solar energy conversion, American Institute of Physics, Physics Today, 60, 37-42 (2007)
  2. Rabinowitch E., The photogalvanic effect Part I, The photogalvanic properties of the thionine-iron system, J. Chem. Phys., 8(7), 551 (1940)
  3. Rabinowitch E., The photogalvanic effect Part II, The photogalvanic properties of the thionine-iron system, J. Chem. Phys., 8(7), 560 (1940)
  4. Bisquert J., Cahen D., Hodes G., Riihle S. and Zaban A., Physical chemical principles of photovoltaic conversion with nanoparticales, mesoporous dye sensitized solar cell, J. Phy. Chem, 108, 8106-8118 (2004)
  5. Meyer G.J., Molecular approaches to solar energy conversion with coordination compounds anchored to semiconductor surface, Inorganic Chemistry, 44(20), 6852-6864 (2005)
  6. Albery W.J. and Archer M.D., Optimum efficiency of photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion, Nature, 270, 399 -402 (1977)
  7. Bolton J.R. and Hall D.O., Photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy. Annual Review of Energy, 4, 353 – 401(1979)
  8. Butler M.A. and Ginley D.S., Principles of photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion, J. Materials Science, 15, 1-19 (1980)
  9. Belinicher V.I. and Sturman B.I., The photogalvanic effect in media lacking a center of symmetry, Sov. Phy. Ups., 23(3), 199 (1980)
  10. Dung M.H. and Kozak J.J., Efficiency of light-energy conversion in photogalvanic cells and water cleavage systems, J. Chem. Phys. (United States), 77, 6 (1982)
  11. Ghosh J.K., Ghosh S.K. and Bhattacharya S.C., Role of nonionic micelles of tweens in photogalvanic generation using fluorescien dye, J. Oleo Science, 53, 273 – 277 (2004)
  12. Balzani V., Credi A. and Venturi M., Photochemical conversion of solar energy, Chem. Sus. Chem., 1(1-2), 26–58 (2008)
  13. Gangotri K.M. and Indora V., Studies in the photogalvanic effect in mixed reductant for Solar energy conversion and storage, Dextrose and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Azur A system, Solar Energy, 84(2), 271 – 276 (2010)
  14. Gangotri K.M., Indora V. and Bhimwal M.K., Studies of mixed Reductant systems with Azure A as photosensitizer for solar energy conversion and storage photogalvanic cells, Int. J. Sustainable Energy, 30(2), 119-128 (2011)
  15. Gangotri K.M. and Bhimwal M.K., Study the performance of photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage: Toluidine blue – D-Xylose – NaLS system, Int. J. Energy Res., 35(6), 545 -552 (2011)
  16. Genwa K.R., Kumar A. and Sonel A., Photogalvanic solar energy conversion: Study with photosensitizers Toludine blue and Malachite green in presence of NaLS, Applied Energy, 86(9), 1431-1436 (2009)