International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effects of Ethanol Extracts of Healthy and Infected Panicum maximum (Jacq.) Floret on liver and kidney function profile and histopathology in Sprague-dawley rats

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Yaba College of Technology P.M.B 2011, Yaba Lagos, NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine University of Lagos, NIGERIA
  • 3 Department of Botany, University of Lagos, NIGERIA
  • 4 Department of Biological Sciences, Yaba College of Technology P.M.B 2011, Yaba Lagos, NIGERIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 1, Issue (5), Pages 8-13, May,2 (2012)


There is concern that consumption of infected of infected Panicum maximum florets may result in poisoning in livestock. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of healthy and infected P. maximum florets (Poaceae) on selected indices of liver and kidney functions, haematological and histopathological parameters in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed with different doses of lyophilized extracts for 21 days and effect of the plant on tissues of liver and kidney were macroscopically examined. Also the effects on the biochemical and haematological parameters were evaluated. The healthy floret extract significantly reduced (P < 0.05) aspertate aminotransferases(AST), alanine aminotransferases(ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, albumin and total protein at moderate to high doses. There were no significant changes in red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin levels (HB) and packed cell volume (PCV) when compared with control. The infected floret extract significantly reduced ALT, AST and ALP at low to moderate (100 – 500mg /kg body weight) but induced significant increase in ALT level at the highest dose of 750mg/kg body weight when compared with control. Total protein and creatinine levels were not significantly (P < 0.05) affected while urea level was reduced at all doses. Red blood cell, HB and PCV increased as doses increased. Histopathological examination revealed marked pathological lesions on liver and kidney at high dose administration of the infected extracts. However healthy floret extracts did not induce any pathological lesions on liver and kidney. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids.


  1. Arokhesi G.E., Fungal diseases of aerial parts of Panicum maximum Jacq. Ph.D Thesis University of Lagos, 144 (1997)
  2. Giussani L.M., Cota-Sanchez, S.H., Cota-Sanchez., Zuwaga F.O., and Kellogg, E.A., A molecular phylogeny of the grass subfamily panicoideae (Poaceae) shows multiple origins of C4 photosynthesis, Ame. J. of Bot., 88, 1993 – 2012 (2001)
  3. Zuloaga F.O., Morrore O. and Gussani L.M., Cladistic analysis of the paniceae: a preliminary approach, In: Grass systematic and evolution, S.W.L, Jacobs and J. Euerett (Eds.) CSIRO, Collingwood, 123-135 (2000)
  4. Doss A., Parivuguna V., Vijayasanthi M. and Surendran S., Antibacterial evaluation and phytochemical analysis of certain medicinal plantsb J. of Res. in Bio. 1, 24-29 (2011)
  5. Bogdan A.V., Tropical and Fodder plant. First Edition, Longman publishing company, New York, 191 (1977)
  6. Lenne J.M. and Sonoda R.M., Tropical pasture pathology: A Pioneering and Challenging Endeavour, P. Dis., 74, 945-951 (1990)
  7. Aganga A.A. and Tshwenyane S., Potentials of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) as forage crop in livestock production, Pak. J. of Nut. 3(1), 1 – 4 (2004)
  8. Sodeinde F.G., Adeleye I.O.A., Asaohi V.O., Amao S.R. and Laniran I., Yield, mineral content and nutritive value of Panicum maximum Cv T58 in the derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria, Res. J. of Bio. Sci., 1(1), 56 – 59 (2006)
  9. Oderinde J.A. and Babayemi O.J., Comparative studies on yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum and Andropogon gayanus as influenced by Tephrosia candida and Leucaena leucocephala, Livestock Res. for R. Dev., 20(2), 1 – 9 (2008)
  10. Mabadeje S., Fusarium leaf spot of Panicum maximum Jacq, Nig. J. of Sci., 12, 89 – 91 (1978)
  11. Vanky K. and Bauer R., Conidiophoromyces, A new genus of ustilaginales, Mycotaxon 52, 427 – 436 (1992)
  12. Piepenbring M., Smut fungi: Ustilaginales and Microbotyales, basidiomycota in Panama, Rev. Biol Trop. 49(2), 411 – 428 (2000)
  13. Woolf A., Witchcraft or mycotoxin? The salem witch trials., J. of Clin. Toxi., 38(4), 457 – 460 (2000)
  14. Tudzynski P., Correia T. and Keller, Biotechnology and Genetics of Ergot Alkaloids, J. of Psych. Drugs, 57, 93 – 65 (2001)
  15. Sofowora A., Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, 256 pp (1982)
  16. Harborne J.B., Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis, Chapman and Hill, London, 279 (1998)
  17. Evans W.C., Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy, Thirteen Edition, Balliere Tindall, Macmillian Publisher, London, 474 (1989
  18. Pieme C.A., Peniap V.N., Nkegoum B., Taziebou C.L. and Ngongang J., Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic extract of leaves of Roxb sp. (L) (Ceasalpiniaceae), Afri. J. Biotechnol., 5(3), 283-289 (2006)
  19. Mythlypriya R., Shanthi P. and Sachdanandam P., Oral acute and subacute toxicity studies with Kalpamruthaa, a modified indigenous preparation on rats, J. of Health Sci., 53(4), 351-358 (2007)
  20. Wasan K.M., Najafi S., Wong J. and Knory M., Assessing plasma lipid levels, body weight and hepatic and renal toxicity following chronic oral administration of a water soluble phytosanol compound FM-VPA to gerbils, J. Pharm. Sci. 4(3), 228-234 (2001)
  21. Sushruta K., Satyanarayana S., Srinivas N. and Sekhar R.J., Evaluation of the blood glucose reducing effects of aqueous extracts of selected Umbelliferous friuts used in culinary practice, Trop. J. of Pharm. Res. 5(2), 613-617 (2006)
  22. Kanife U.C., Potentials of alkaloids from Panicum maximum florets infected with the fungus Tilletia ayresii in controlling uterine contraction in Sprague- dawley rats, Ph.D Thesis University of Lagos, 181(2011)
  23. Ojiako O.A. and Nwanyo H.U., Is Vernonia amygdalina hepatotoxic or hepatoprotective? Response from biochemical and toxicity studies in rats., A. J. Biotech. 5(10), 745-750 (2006)
  24. Withawaskul P., Ampai P., Kayanapothi D. and Taesothikul L., Acute and subacute toxicities of saponin mixture isolated from Schefflera lencantha., J. of Ethnopharm., 89, 115-121 (2003)
  25. Ashafa A.O.T., Yakubu M.T., Grieson D.S. and Afolayan A.J., Toxicological evaluation of the aqueousextract of Felicia muricata Thunb, Leaves in Wistar rats, Afri. J. Biotechnol., 6, 949-954 (2009)
  26. Mahluli M., Toxicological and antifertility investigations of oleanolic acid in male vervet monkeys (Clorocebus aethropis) Ph.D Thesis, Discipline of Physiological Sciences, University of the Western cape, Bellville, 172 (2003)
  27. Ogbonnia S., Adekunle A.A., Bosa M.K. and Enwuru V.N., Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of Alstonia congensis Engler (Apocynaceae) bark and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunci) A. Rich (Annonaceae) fruits mixtures used in the treatment of diabetes, A. J. Biotech., 7(6), 701 – 705 (2008)
  28. Ogbonnia S.O., Mbaka G.O., Igbokwe N.H., Anyika E.N., Alli P. and Nwakakwa N., Antimicrobial evaluation, acute and subaromic toxicity studies of Leore Bitters, a Nigerian polyherbal formulation, in rodents, Agri. and Bio. J. of North Ame., 1(3), 366 – 376 (2010)
  29. Ellefson D.R and Caraway T.W., Lipids and lipoproteins, In: Fundamentals of clinical chemistry, Tietz, W.N. (ed.) Saunders company Philadelphinia, NewYork, 541(1982)