International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Depression - A Review

Author Affiliations

  • 1 School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute Technology, Vellore, TamilNadu, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 1, Issue (4), Pages 79-87, April,2 (2012)


Major depression is a mood disorder characterized by a sense of inadequacy, despondency, decreased activity, pessimism, anhedonia and sadness where these symptoms severely disrupt and adversely affect the person’s life, sometimes to such an extent that suicide is attempted or results. The search for an extended understanding of the causes of depression, and for the development of additional effective treatments is highly significant. Clinical and pre-clinical studies suggest stress is a key mediator in the pathophysiology of depression.


  1. Kessler R.C., McGonagle K.A., Zhao S., et al., Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-IIIR psychiatric disorders in the United States, Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Arch Gen Psychiatry, 51, 8-19, (2003)
  2. Robins L., Regier D., Psychiatric Disorders in America, New York: Free Press (2004)
  3. Depression Guideline Panel. Depression in Primary Care: Volume 1. Detection and Diagnosis Clinical Practice Guideline, Number 5. Rockville, Maryland: U.S Department of Health and Human Services; AHCPR No. 93-0550 (2001)
  4. Katon W. The epidemiology of depression in medical care, Int J Psychiatry Med, 17, 93-112 (2006)
  5. Judd L.L., The clinical course of unipolar major depressive disorders Arch Gen Psychiatry, 54, 989-991 (2008)
  6. Greenberg P.E., Stiglin L.E., Finkelstein S.N. and Berndt E.R., The economic burden of depression in 1990, J Clan Psychiatry, 54, 405-418 (2009)
  7. Blair-West G.W., Mellsop G.W. and Eyeson-Annan M.L., Down-rating lifetime suicide risk in major depression, Acta Psychiatr Scand, 95, 259-263 (2010)
  8. Harris E.C., Barraclough B., Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders, A meta-analysis Br J Psychiatry, 170, 205-228. (2001)
  9. Murray L., Stanley C., Hooper R., King F., Fiori-Cowley A, The role of infant factors in postnatal depression and mother-infant interactions, Dev Med Child Neurol, 38, 109 119 (2000)
  10. Musselman D., Evans D. and Nemeroff C., The relationship of depression to cardiovascular disease, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 55, 580-592 (2002)
  11. Consensus Development Panel, NIMH/NIH Consensus Development Conference statement Mood disorders: pharmacologic prevention of recurrences, Am J Psychiatry, 142, 469-476 (2003)
  12. Pennix B.W., Guralnik J.M., Ferrucci L., Simonsick E.M., Deeg D.J., Wallace R.B., Depressive symptoms and physical decline in community-dwelling older persons JAMA, 276, 1720-1726 (2007)
  13. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association (2000)
  14. Wells K.B., Stewart A., Hays R.D. et al., The functioning and well-being of depressed patients Results from the Medical Outcomes Study, JAMA, 262, 914-919 (2002)
  15. Howland R., General health, health care utilization, and medical comorbidity in dysthymia, Int J Psychiatry Med 23, 211-238 (2005)
  16. Wells K.B., Burnam M.A., Rogers W., Hays R., Camp P., The course of depression in adult outpatients Results from the Medical Outcomes Study, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 49, 788-794 (2002)
  17. Williams J.W. Jr, Kerber C.A., Mulrow C.D., Medina A. and Aguilar C., Depressive disorders in primary care: prevalence, functional disability and identification, J Gen Intern Med., 10, 7-12 (2008)
  18. Wagner R., Burns B.J., Yarnall K., Sigmon A., Walker R. and Gaynes B.N., Minor depression in family practice: functional morbidity, comorbidity, service utilization and outcomes, Psychol Med., 30(6), 1377-1390 (2000)
  19. Cooper-Patrick L., Crum R.M., Ford D.E., Characteristics of patients with major depression who received care in general medical and specialty mental health settings, Med Care, 32, 15-24 (2009)
  20. Paykel E. and Priest R., Recognition and management of depression in general practice, consensus statement, BMJ 305, 1198-1202 (2002)
  21. Simon G.E., Von Korff M. and Durham M.L., Predictors of outpatient mental health utilization by primary care patients in a health maintenance organization, Am J Psychiatry, 151, 908-913 (2004)
  22. Song F., Freemantle N. and Sheldon T.A., et al., Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability, BMJ, 306, 683-687 (2006)
  23. Kessler R.C., Nelson C.B., McGongale K.A., Liu J., Swartz M. and Blazer DG., Comorbidity of DSMIIIR major depressive disorder in the general population, Results from the US National Comorbidity Survey, Br J Psychiatry, 168, 17-30 (2006)
  24. Regier D.A., Narrow W.E., Rae D.S., Manderscheid R.W., Locke B.Z. and Goodwin F.K., The de facto US mental and addictive disorders service system, Epidemiologic catchment area prospective 1-year prevalence rates of disorders and services, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 50, 85-94 (2005)
  25. Pincus H.A., Tanielian T.L. and Marcus S.C., et al., Prescribing trends in psychotropic medications, primary care, psychiatry and other medical specialities, JAMA, 279, 526-531 (2007)
  26. Simon G.E. and Von Korff M., Recognition, management, and outcomes of depression in primary care, Arch Fam Med., 4, 99-105 (2007)
  27. Gerber P.D., Barrett J., Barrett J., Manheimer E., Whiting R. and Smith R., Recognition of depression by internists in primary care, a comparison of internist and gold standard psychiatric assessments, J Gen Intern Med,. 4, 7-13 (2003)
  28. Klinkman M.S., Competing demands in psychosocial care, A model for the identification and treatment of depressive disorders in primary care, Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 19, 98-111 (2001)
  29. Borowsky S.J., Rubenstein L.V., Meredith L.S., Camp P., Jackson-Triche M. and Wells K.B., Who is at risk of nondetection of mental health problems in primary care, J Gen Intern Med,. 15, 381-388 (2000)
  30. Linde K., Mulrow C.D. and St. John's wort for depression, Cochrane Review, The Cochrane Library, (2008)
  31. US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2nd ed, Alexandria, Va., International Medical Publishing, (2009)
  32. American College of Physicians, ACP-ASIM Clinical Practice Guidelines: Current and Future Projects, Available at: (2009)
  33. Feightner J.W., Early detection of depression. In, Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, Canadian Guide to Clinical Preventive Health Care, Ottawa, Health Canada, 450-454 (2004)
  34. Arthur A., Jagger C., Lindesay J., Graham C. and Clarke M., Using an annual over-75 health check to screen fordepression, validation of the short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) within general practice, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 14, 431-439 (2008)
  35. Banerjee S., Shamash K., MacDonald A.J. and Mann A.H., The use of the SelfCARE (D) as a screening tool for depression in the clients of local authority home care services—a preliminary study, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 13, 695-699 (2006)
  36. Bashir K., Blizard R., Jenkins R. and Mann A., Validation of the 12-item general health questionnaire in British general practice, Primary Care Psychiatry, 2, 4-7 (2006)
  37. Beekman A.T., Deeg D.J., Van Limbeek J., Braam A.W., De Vries M.Z. and Van Tilburg W., Criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D), results from a community-based sample of older subjects in The Netherlands, Psychol Med., 27, 231-235 (2011)
  38. Bird A.S., Macdonald A.J.D., Mann A.H. and Philpot M.P., Preliminary experience with the Selfcare (D), A self-rating depression questionnaire for use in elderly, non-institutionalized subjects, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 2, 31-38 (2000)
  39. Broadhead W.E., Leon A.C. and Weissman M.M., et al., Development and validation of the SDDS-PC screen for multiple mental disorders in primary care, Arch Fam Med., 4, 211-219 (2003)
  40. Burnam M.A., Wells K.B., Leake B. and Landsverk J., Development of a brief screening instrument for detecting depressive disorders, Med Care, 26, 775-789 (2011)
  41. D'Ath P., Katona P., Mullan E., Evans S. and Katona C., Screening, detection and management of depression in elderly primary care attenders, I, The acceptability and performance of the 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the development of short versions, Fam Pract., 11, 260-266 (2004)
  42. Fechner-Bates S., Coyne J.C. and Schwenk T.L., The relationship of self-reported distress to depressive disorders and other psychopathology, J Consult Clin Psychol, 62, 550-559 (2004)
  43. Finlay-Jones R.A. and Murphy E., Severity of psychiatric disorder and the 30-item general health questionnaire, Br J Psychiatry, 134, 609-616 (2006)
  44. Geisser M.E., Roth R.S. and Robinson M.E., Assessing depression among persons with chronic pain using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory, a comparative analysis, Clin J Pain., 13, 163-170 (2007)
  45. Gerety M.B., Williams J.W. Jr. and Mulrow C.D., et al., Performance of case-finding tools for depression in the nursing home, influence of clinical and functional characteristics and selection of optimal threshold scores, J Am Geriatr Soc., 42, 1103-1109 (2006)
  46. Goldberg D.P. and Blackwell B., Psychiatric illness in general practice, A detailed study using a new method of case identification, BMJ., 1, 439-443 (2012)
  47. Hendrie H.C., Callahan C.M. and Levitt E.E., et al., Prevalence rates of major depressive disorders, The effects of varying the diagnostic criteria in an older primary care population, Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 3, 119-131 (2001)
  48. Holcomb W.L. Jr. and Stone L.S., Lustman P.J., Gavard J.A. and Mostello D.J., Screening for depression in pregnancy, characteristics of the Beck Depression Inventory, Obstet Gynecol, 88,1021-1025 (2005)
  49. Hoyl MT, Alessi CA, Harker JO, et al., Development and testing of a five-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale, J Am Geriatr Soc., 47,873-878 (2008)
  50. Irwin M., Artin K.H. and Oxman M.N., Screening for depression in the older adult, criterion validity of the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Arch Intern Med., 159, 1701-1704 (2009)
  51. Klinkman M.S., Coyne J.C., Gallo S. and Schwenk T.L., Can case-finding instruments be used to improve physician detection of depression in primary care, Arch Fam Med., 6, 567- 573 (2007)
  52. Leon A.C., Olfson M. and Weissman M.M., et al., Brief screens for mental disorders in primary care, J Gen Intern Med., 11, 426-430 (2012)
  53. Leung K.K., Lue B.H., Lee M.B. and Tang L.Y., Screening of depression in patients with chronic medical diseases in a primary care setting, Fam Pract., 15, 67-75 (2009)
  54. Lewinsohn P.M., Seeley J.R., Roberts R.E.and Allen N.B., Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) as a screening instrument for depression among community-residing older adults, Psychol Aging., 12, 277-287 (2007)
  55. Lustman P.J., Clouse R.E., Griffith L.S., Carney R.M. and Freedland K.E., Screening for depression in diabetes using the Beck Depression Inventory, Psychosom Med., 59, 24 (2011)
  56. Lyness J.M., Noel T.K., Cox C., King D.A., Conwell Y. and Caine E.D., Screening for depression in elderly primary care patients, A comparison of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies- Depression Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale, Arch Intern Med., 157, 449- 454 (2010)
  57. Myers J.K. and Weissman M.M., Use of a self-report symptom scale to detect depression in a community sample, Am J Psychiatry., 137, 1081-1084 (2000)
  58. Nagel R., Lynch D. and Tamburrino M., Validity of the medical outcomes study depression screener in family practice training centers and community settings, Fam Med., 30, 362 365 (2008)
  59. Neal R.M. and Baldwin R.C., Screening for anxiety and depression in elderly medical outpatients, Age Aging, 23, 461-464 (2004)
  60. Okimoto J.T., Barnes R.F., Veith R.C., Raskind M.A., Inui T.S. and Carter W.B., Screening for depression in geriatric medical patients, Am J Psychiatry, 139, 799-802 (2002)
  61. Parkerson G.R. Jr. and Broadhead W.E., Screening for anxiety and depression in primary care with the Duke Anxiety-Depression Scale, Fam Med., 29, 177-181 (2007)
  62. Salokangas R.K., Poutanen O. and Stengard E., Screening for depression in primary care, Development and validation of the Depression Scale, a screening instrument for depression, Acta Psychiatr Scand., 92, 10-16 (2005)
  63. Khan Z.A. and Ghosh A.R., Involvement of nNOS in the antidepressant-like effect of Withaferin-A in rats, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (JPBMS), 7, 1-2 (2010)