6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Cassia alata as a Potential Coagulant in Water Treatment

Author Affiliations

  • 1Faculty of Agro Industry and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), MALAYSIA
  • 2 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), MALAYSIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 1, Issue (2), Pages 28-33, February,2 (2012)


Cassia alata or locally known as “pokok gelenggang” is a wild legume species found in Kelantan. Cassia alata based coagulant-flocculant was tested for surface water collected from the Kelantan River. The plant leaves was used to test coagulant rate and dose. The turbidity and other physico-chemicals of surface water sample were measured before and after the jar-test by using portable instruments. Turbidimeter Hanna Model 2100P was used to measure turbidity, while, portable pH meter hand-held Model C535 was used to measure pH. Meanwhile, iron and manganese were measured by using spectrophotometer model DR 2800. Total suspended solids were analyzed using method used by Michaud. The experiments were carried out with coagulant dosage of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3 mL/L with the intervals of 0.5 mL/L. The results have shown that Cassia alata leaves can remove turbidity up to 93.33% at the optimal dosage of 1.0 mL/L. In addition, the potential of Cassia alata leaves to remove other pollutants presence in the river water like suspended solids, ferum, manganese and pH was also identified. On the other hand, the leaves of Cassia alata can remove suspended solids by 56.4% but not other parameters.


  1. Miller S.M., Ezekiel J.F., Vinka O.C., James A.S. and Julie B.Z., Toward Understanding the Efficacy and Mechanism of Opuntia spp. as a Natural Coagulant for Potential Application in Water Treatment, Environmental Science and Technology, 42(12), 4274-4279 (2008)
  2. McCarthy J.F. and Zachara J.M., Subsurface transport of contaminants, Environ. Sci. Technol., 23(5), 496–502 (1989)
  3. Garcia-Fayos B., Arnal J.M., Verdu G. and Sancho M., Aquapot Project: Potential of Moringa Oleifera Seeds and its Application in Drinking Water Treatment, International Conference on Food Innovation-foofInnova(2010)
  4. James C. and O’Melia C.R., Considering sludge production in the selection of coagulants, J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 74 158–251(1982)
  5. Ndabigengesere A. and Narasiah K.S., Use of Moringa oleifera seeds as a primary coagulant in wastewater treatment, Environ. Technol., 19(8), 789–800 (1998)
  6. Haaroff J. and Cleasby J.L., Comparing aluminum and iron coagulants for in-line filtration of cold waters, J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 80,168–175(1988)
  7. Rondeau V., Jacqmin-Gadda H., Commenges D. and Dartigues J.F., Aluminum in drinking water and cognitive decline in elderly subjects, The Paquid Cohort American Journal of Epidimiology, 154, 288-290 (2001)
  8. Gauthier E., Fortier I., Courchesne F., Pepin P., Mortimer J. and Gauvreau D., Forms in Drinking Water and Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease, Environmental Research,84(A), 234-246 (2000)
  9. Leading Edge International Research Group, Contamination With Aluminum Compounds and Effect on Human Neurophysiology and Behavior, Leading Edge International Research Group, Retrieved January 23, 2011, from http://www.trufax.org(1996)
  10. Muyibi S.A., and Alfugara A.M.S., Treatment of surface water with Moringa oleifera seed extract and alumcomparative study using a pilot scale water treatmeplant, Int. J. Environ. Stud., 60 (6), 617–626
  11. Ndabigengesere A. and Narasiah K.S., Influence of operating parameters on turbidity removal by coagulation with Moringa oleifera seedsTechnol., 17 (10), 1103–1112(1996)
  12. Okuda T., Baes A.U., Nishijima W. and Okada M., Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution, 35 (2), 405–410 (2001)
  13. Ndabigengesere A. and Narasiah K.S., Quality of water treated by coagulation using oringa oleifera Water Res., 32(3), 781–791 (1998)
  14. Ali G., El-Taweel G. and Ali M.A., The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficiency of Moringa oleifera extracts, Int. J, Environ. Stud., 61 (6),699
  15. Nantachit K., Antibacterial activity of the capsules of Moringa oleifera Lamk(Moringaceae), 5 (3), 365–368 (2006)
  16. Miller S.M., Fugate E.J., Craver V.O., Smith, J.A. and Zimmerman J.B., Toward Understanding the Efficacy and Mechanism of Opuntiafor Potential Application in Water Treatment, Environmental Science and Technology,4279 (2008)
  17. Sanchez-Martin J., BeltranHernandez C., Surface and wastewater treatment using a new tannin-based coagulant,Environmental Management, 91(10), 2051-2058 (2010)
  18. Reezal I., Somchit M.N. and Abdul Rahim M., Antifungal Properties of Besar), Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Environment and Natural Resources,2002, Hotel Renaissance Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 654-659 (2002)
  19. Michaud J.P., Measuring Total Suspended Solids and Turbidity in lakes and streams, Understanding and Monitoring Lakes and Streams,State of Washington, Department of Ecology (1994)