International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Uniaxial Growth and Characterization studies of [(para methoxy phenyl) imino] benzene NLO crystal by Sankaranarayanan-RamasamyMethod

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Physics, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai – 627002, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 1, Issue (10), Pages 37-44, October,2 (2012)


Optically transparent bulk single crystal of [(para methoxy) phenyl] imino benzene (PMPIB) has been grown along <013>plane using the uniaxial crystal growth method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy with a new modification in the growth assembly. The crystal was grown with a growth rate of 6mm/day upto a dimension of 60 X 30 X 10 mm and within a period of 10 days having a cylindrical morphology. Single crystal XRD analysis confirms that the growth ingot belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system with a space group of P212121. The crystalline perfection was assessed by XRPD analysis. The powder diffraction pattern of the grown crystal has been indexed. The presence of C=N bond with intramolecular hydrogen bonding on the protonation of ions were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The UV-vis-NIR spectrum of the crystal shows that the crystal has cut-off wavelength at 200 nm. The 1H1and 13NMR spectra confirms the molecular structure. The existence of second harmonic generation (SHG) signal was observed by using ND:YAG laser with the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The Laser damage threshold of PMPIB was found to be 0.57 GW/cm2 and hence PMPIB can be used in frequency doubler system. The photoconductivity study of PMPIB revealed negative photoconductivity of the sample.


  1. Kitazawa M., Higuchi R.H., Takahasi M., Wada T. and Sasabe H., Ultraviolet generation at 266 nm in a novel organic nonlinear optical crystal: l-pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid, Appl. Phys. Lett.,64, 2477-2479 (1994)
  2. Misoguti L., Verela A.T., Nunes F.D., Bagnato V.S., Melo F.E.A., Filho J.M. and Zilio S.C., Optical properties of L-alanine Organic Crystals, Opt. Mater., 6(3), 147-152 (1996)
  3. Wang W.S., Aggarwal M.D., Choi J., Bhat K., Gebre T., Shields A.D., Penn B.G. and Frazier D.O., Solvent effects and polymorphic transformation of organic nonlinear optical crystal L-pyroglutamic acid in solution growth processes: I. Solvent effects and growth morphology, J. Cryst Growth, 198-199, 578-582 (1999)
  4. Siltvast W.T., LaserFundamentals, (2nd Edn.) Cambridger University Press (2004)
  5. Lal R.B., Zhang H.W., Wang W.S., Aggarwal M.D., Howard W.H. Lee and Penn B.G., Crystal growth and optical properties of 4-aminobenzophenone crystals for NLO applications, J. Cryst Growth, 174, 393-397 (1997)
  6. Periyasamy B.K., Jebes R.S., Gopalakrishnan N. and Balasubramaniam T., Development of NLO tunable band gap organic devices for optoelectronic applications, Mater. Lett., 61(21), 4246-4249 (2007)
  7. Ravindra H.J., Harrison W.T.A., Suresh Kumar M.R. and Dharmaprakash S.M., Synthesis, crystal growth, characterization and structure–NLO property relationship in 1,3-bis (4-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one single crystal, J. Cryst. Growth, 311(2), 310-315 (2009)
  8. Plagvet A., Guillaume M., Champagne B., Rougier L., Mancois F., Rodriguez V., Pozzo J.L., Ducasse L. and Castet F., Investigation on the Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Responses in the Keto-Enol Equilibrium of Anil Derivatives, J. Physical Chemistry C,112, 5638-5645 (2008)
  9. Volodymyr V. Nesterov, Mikhail Yu, Antipin and Vladimir N. Nesterov: Thermally Stable Imines as New Potential Nonlinear Optical Materials, Cryst. Growth and Design, 4 (3), 521-531 (2004)
  10. Begland R.W., Hartter D.R., Jones F.N., Sam D.J., Sheppard W.A., Webster O.W. and Weigert F.J., Hydrogen cyanide chemistry, VIII. New chemistry of diaminomaleonitrile, Heterocyclic synthesis, J. Org. Chem., 39 (16), 2341-2350 (1974)
  11. Ohtsuka Y., Chemistry of diaminomaleonitrile, II, Preparation of the open-chain adduct with ketone in phosphorus pentoxide-ethanol system, J. Org. Chem.,41(4), 629-683 (1976)
  12. Ohtsuka Y., Chemistry of diaminomaleonitrile, Reaction with isocyanate: a novel pyrimidine synthesis, . Org. Chem., 43(16), 3231-3234 (1978)
  13. Ohtsuka Y., Chemistry of diaminomaleonitrile, Nitrile hydration of the Schiff bases, . Org. Chem.,44 (5), 827-830 (1979)
  14. Wöhrle D., Bohlen H. and Rothkopf H.W., Polymeric Schiff base chelates and their precursors, Synthesis of Schiff base chelates from diaminomaleonitrile and fundamental investigation of their activity for the valence isomerisation of quadricyclane to norbornadiene, Makromol. Chem., 184, 763-778 (1983)
  15. Wang Y., Yu Z., Sun Y., Yishi Wang and Lu L., Synthesis, vibrational spectral and nonlinear optical studies of N-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-imine: A combined experimental and theoretical investigation, Spectrochimica Acta Part A; Molecular and Biomolecular spectroscopy, 79(5) 1475-1482 (2011)
  16. Mukesh M.J. and Bharat B.B., Crystal structure optimization, Semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations and Non-linear optical property of a thiazolo [3, 2-a] pyrimidine derivative, Res. J. Recent Sci.,1(ISC-2011), 337-340 (2012)
  17. Volodymr V.N., Mikhail Y.A., Vladimir N.N., Craig E.M., Beatriz H.C. and Tatiana V.T., Thermally stable heterocyclic imines as new potential nonlinear optical materials, J. Phys. Chem. B,108 8531-8539 (2004)
  18. Rashidi N.A. and Berad B.N., Synthesis, characterization and de-tert-butylation of 4-N-t-butyl-5-aryl imino-1,2,4 triazolidine-3-thiones into 5-arylimino-1,2,4 triazolidine-3-thiones, Res. J. Recent Sci., 1(ISC-2011), 79-84 (2012)
  19. Prajapati Ajaypal, Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activity Studies of 5-Nitro N’-[Arylidenhydrazidomethyl Indole] 2-(Substituted Aryl)-3-(N’-Indolyl Acetamiddyl)-4-Oxothiazolidines, Res. J. Recent Sci.,1(ISC-2011) 99-104 (2012)
  20. Prabhakar Y., Prasad K.R.S. and Kumar J.V.S., Microwave assisted synthesis of 3-(4-Ethylbenzyl)-1(4methoxybenzyl)-6-(methylthio)-1, 3, 5-triazine-2, 4 (1H, 3H)-dione derivatives Under solvent free condition with high yields, Res. J. Recent Sci., 1(ISC-2011) 105-109 (2012)
  21. Girgaonkar M.V. and Shirodkar S.G., Synthesis, characterization and Biological studies of Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes with New Bidentate Shiff’s base ligands as 4-hydroxy-3-(1-(arylimino)ethyl)chromen-2-one, Res. J. Recent Sci., 1 (ISC-2011), 110-116 (2012)
  22. Hisatake K., Tanka S. and Yovko A., Evaporation rate of water in a vessel, . Appl. Phys., 1993, 73 7395 – 7401 (1993)
  23. Pavia D.L., Lampman G.M., Kriz G.S. and Vyvyan J.A., Introduction to Spectroscopy, 4th Edn., Brookescole Publishers, California (2008)
  24. Banwell C.N. and McCASH E.M., Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy,th Edn. Mc-Graw-Hill (1994)
  25. Ushasree P.M., Jayavel R. and Ramasamy P., Growth and characterisation of phosphate mixed ZTS single crystals, Mater. Sci. Eng. B,65(3), 153-158 (1999)
  26. Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7thEdn., John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, (2007)
  27. Ganesh R.B., Kanna V., Sathyalakshmi R. and Ramasamy P., The growth of l-Glutamic acid hydrochloride crystals by Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy (SR) method, Mater. Lett.,61(3), 706-708 (2007)
  28. Hundelshausen U.V., The growth of l-Glutamic acid hydrochloride crystals by Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy (SR) method, Phys. Lett. A,34(7), 405-406 (1971)
  29. Bube R.H., Photoconductivity of Solids, Wiley, New York (1981)
  30. Ashraf I.M., Elshaik H.A. and Badr A.M., Photoconductivity in Tl4S3 layered single crystals, Cryst. Res. Technol., 39(1) 63-70 (2004)
  31. Pandi S. and Jayaraman D., Studies on photoconductivity of C60 and C60-doped poly(vinylchloride), Mater. Chem. Phys.,71(3), 314-317 (2001)
  32. Joshi V.N., Photoconductivity, Marcel Dekker, New York, (1990)
  33. Dhanuskodi S., Jeyakumari A.P., Manivannan S., Philip J. and Tiwari S.K., Semiorganic nonlinear optical material for frequency doubling: Preparation and properties of sodium p-nitrophenolate dihydrate (SPNP), Spectrochimica Acta Part A,66(2), 318-322 (2007)
  34. Nakatani H., Bosenberg W.R., Cheng L.K. and Tang C.L., Laser-induced damage in beta-barium metaborate, Appl. Phys. Lett.,53, 2587-2589 (1978)