International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Proximate, malting characteristics and grain quality properties of some Nigerian rice of different varieties

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 9, Issue (2), Pages 8-15, April,18 (2019)


The recent significant increase in rice production in Nigeria can lead to a surfeit of rice if rice paddy are not properly diversified into other products such as rice malt which can be used in production of syrup, beer, flavoured drinks and some baked goods. Therefore the objective of this research is to evaluate the grain and malting quality characteristics of ten (10) locally available rice varieties in Nigeria. Malting parameters measured were germinative energy (GE), germinative capacity (GC), malting loss, malt yield, degree of steeping and thousand corn weight. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among the rice varieties in most of the parameters assessed. Brown rice had higher scores of malting parameters (GE-98%, GC-97.96%, malt yield-87.81% and thousand corn weight-30.40g) compared to the other varieties. FARO 61 had the least GE (85.50%), GC (85.21%) and thousand corn weight (25g). Malted brown rice had the highest protein content (9.39%) compared to unmalted IWA 3 which had the least protein content (7.10%). FARO 52 had a highest carbohydrate content (84.84%) when compared to the least in unmalted brown rice (73.77%). The kilned sample had a significantly reduced moisture content than the original grain which caused a proportional increase in protein and carbohydrate content but with corresponding decrease in ash, fat and moisture content of rice flours.


  1. Adebowale A.A., Sanni S.A., Karim O.R. and Ojoawo J.A (2010)., Malting characteristics of Ofada rice: chemical and sensory qualities of malt from Ofada rice grains., International Food Research Journal, 17, 83-88.
  2. Esiape J. (1994)., A study of the characteristics of amylase (starch hydrolysing enzymes) of the red sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) variety available in Ghana and its suitability for brewing., Bsc. Project. University of Ghana, Legon.
  3. IOB (2007)., Institute of Brewing. Recommended methods of analysis., Journal of Institute of Brewing, London, 7, 54-76.
  4. Kunze W. (2005)., Technology Brewing and Malting., VLB, Berlin, 110.
  5. AOAC (2000)., Association of Official Analytical Chemists Official Methods of Analysis (18th ed.)., Arlington, VA., USA.
  6. Tokpah E.S. (2010)., Seed and Grain Quality Characteristics of some Rice Varieties in Ghana., Maters Thesis. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
  7. Rickman J.F., Bell M. and Shires D. (2006)., Seed Quality., Accessed February 21, 2017.
  8. Ayernor G.S. and Ocloo F.C.K. (2007)., Physico-chemical changes and diastatic activity associated with germinating paddy rice (PSB.Rc 34)., African Journal of Food Science, 1, 37-41.
  9. Vanangamudi K., Palanisamy V., Natesan P. and Karivarath T.V. (1987)., Variety Determination in Rice - Examination of the Hulled Grain., Seed Science and Technology, 16, 457-464.
  10. Nnamchi C.I., Okolo B.N. and Moneke A.N. (2014)., Grain and malt quality properties of some improved Nigerian sorghum varieties., Journal of Institute of Brewing and Distilling, 120(4), 353-359.
  11. Ameko E., Achio S., Alhassan S., Gyasi G. and Sackey R. (2013)., Procedure to determine The Germination Period for Optimum Amylase Activity in Maize Malt Crude Extracts for the Artisanal Production of Maltose Syrup from Fresh Cassava Starch., Innovative Romanian Food Biotechnology, 12, 52-60.
  12. Makeri M.U., Nkama I. and Badau M.H. (2013)., Physico-chemical, malting and biochemical properties of some improved Nigerian barley cultivars and their malts., International Food Research Journal, 20(4), 1563-1568.
  13. Suhasini A.W. and Malleshi N.G. (1995)., Influence of malting conditions on amylase activity, physical characteristics and nutrient composition of wheat malt., Journal of Food Science and Technology, 32(2), 98-103.
  14. Hammond T.K. (2001)., Factors affecting the production of fermentable sugars from cassava flour using a combination of rice malt and commercial enzymes., Unpublished M.Phil Thesis, University of Ghana, Legon.
  15. Ogbonna A.C. (2002)., Studies on malting parameters, purification and characterization of proteolytic enzymes from sorghum malt varieties., PhD thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  16. Guido L.F. and Moreira M.M. (2014)., Malting., Engineering Aspects of Cereal and Cereal-Based Products. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, 52-57.
  17. Nimbkar N., Kolekar N.M., Akade J.H. and Rajvanshi A. K. (2006)., Syrup Production from Sweet Sorghum Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI)., Phaltan.
  18. Briggs D.E. (1998)., Malts and Malting., Springer, 369-389.
  19. Lewis M.J. and Young T.W. (2002)., Brewing., Springer, 168-171.
  20. Fleurat-Lessard F. (2004)., Stored grain: physicochemical treatment., In:Wrigley C, Corke H and Walker CE (eds). Encyclopedia of Grain Science. Vol. 3. Elsevier Academic Press. London. United Kingdom. 254-263.
  21. Oyenuga V.A. (1968)., Nigeria foods and feeding stuffs., Their chemistry and nutritive value. Ibadan: University Press.
  22. Alozie Y.E., Iyam M.A., Lawal O., Udofia U. and Ani I.F. (2009)., Utilization of Bambara ground flour blends in bread production., Journal of Food Technology, 7(4), 111-114.
  23. Temple V.J., Badamosi E.J., Ladeji O. and Solomon M. (1996)., Proximate chemical composition of three locally formulated complementary foods., West African Journal of Biological Science, 5, 134-143.
  24. Ijarotimi O.S. (2012)., Influence of germination and fermentation on chemical composition, protein quality and physical properties of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum)., Journal of Cereals and Oil seeds, 3(3), 35-47.
  25. Enujiugha V.N., Badejo A.A., Iyiola S.O. and Oluwamukomi M.O. (2003)., Effectof germination on the nutritional and functional properties of Africanoil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed flour., Food Agric Environ., 1, 72-75.
  26. Sade F.O. (2009)., Proximate, antinutritional factors and functional properties of processed pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)., Journal of Food Technology, 7(3), 92-97.
  27. El-Aal M.A. and Rahma E.H. (1986)., Changes in gross chemical composition with emphasis on lipid and protein fractions during germination of fenugreek seeds., Food chemistry, 22(3), 193-207.
  28. Auta A.I., Suberux H.A. and Bello I.M. (2014)., Effect of Malting Duration on Yield and Proximate Composition of 'Fura' Produced with the Grains of Pennisetum typhoides., Food Science and Quality Management, 27, 33-39.
  29. Laxmi G, Chaturvedi, N and Richa S. (2015)., The Impact of Malting on Nutritional Composition of Foxtail Millet, Wheat and Chickpea., Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 5(5), 1.
  30. Banusha S. and Vasantharuba S. (2013)., Effect of malting on nutritional contents of finger millet and mung bean. American-Eurasian., Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 13(12), 1642-1646.
  31. Dewar J., Taylor J.R.N. and Berjak P. (1997)., Determination of improved steeping conditions for sorghum malting., Journal of Cereal Science., 26, 129-136.
  32. Morris A., Barnett A. and Burrows O. (2004)., Effect of Processing on Nutrient Content of Foods., Caj articles, 37, 160-164.