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Phytochemical analysis, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Entada africana Guill. and perrott stem bark extracts

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 7, Issue (10), Pages 10-15, October,18 (2017)

Abstract

Entada africana Guill and Perrot (Fabaceae) is predominantly a West African medicinal plant used in the treatment of several diseases. Multidrug resistance and the undesirable side effects of synthetic drugs underscore the need to search for alternatives from plants using bioassay guided technique. The hexane, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol stem bark extracts were screened for antibacterial activity. Relatively active acetone and methanol extracts were further analyzed for phytochemical contents and antioxidant property using standard methods. Results of the antibacterial screening indicates that the acetone extract had the best antibacterial property against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zones ranging from 14.00�1.00 mm � 17.00�1.73 mm. Additionally, E. faecalis and E. coli had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.39 mg/mL and 0.20 mg/mL respectively indicating moderate activity but weak on Staphylococcus aureus with MIC of 13.88 mg/mL. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of acetone and methanol extracts indicated 0.528�0.02 mg GAE/g and 0.650�0.85 mg GAE/g total polyphenol respectively. The acetone extract also yielded 0.500�0.017 mg RE/g of total flavonoids while the methanol extract gave 0.253�0.006 mg RE/g of total flavonoids. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test for the crude extracts revealed similar antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid standard and concentration dependent. The observed biological activities indicated the presence of bioactive phyto-constituents. The study therefore supports the therapeutic use of Entada africana as a herbal remedy in traditional medicine.

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