International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Spectrophotometric Analysis of Chlorophylls and Carotenoids from Commonly Grown Fern Species by Using Various Extracting Solvents

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Basic Science, EIILM University, Sikkim, INDIA
  • 2Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Science, EIILM University, Sikkim, INDIA
  • 3Department of Botany, North Bengal University, West Bengal, INDIA
  • 4Department of Chemistry, Malda Government Polytechnic College (under DTET-WB), West Bengal, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (9), Pages 63-69, September,18 (2014)


Present investigation is performed on the comparative extraction of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids) by using solvents of different chemical nature. The study is also concern on the extraction ratio of biomolecules with respect to time duration/variation. Different trend is observed in extraction rate for chlorophylls and carotenoids. Highest extraction of chlorophylls (Ch-a and Ch-b) is noted for DEE (except chlorophyll b in Adiantum sp.). Whereas maximum extraction of caroteniods is performed by acetone in Adiantum sp., and for Crystiella sp. and Drypteris sp DMSO execute best extraction of carotenoids. Significant variations (p <0.01) in pigment concentrations are also noted for sampled species exposed to different chemical extractant solvents for different time duration.


  1. Britton G., The biochemistry of natural pigments. Cambridge University Press, 133140 (1983)
  2. Brown S. B., Houghton J. D. and Hendry G. A. F., Chlorophyll breakdown. In Scheer H (Ed): Chlorophylls. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 465489 (1991)
  3. Costache M. A., Campeanu G. and Neata G., Studies concerning the extraction of chlorophyll and total carotenoids from vegetables, Romanian Biotechnolo. Letters., 17(5), 77027708(2012)
  4. Shaikh S. D. and Dongare M., Analysis of photosynthesis pigments in Adiantumlunulatum Burm. At different localities of Sindhudurg District (Maharastra), Indian Fern . 25, 8386 (2008)
  5. Porra, R. J., Recent advances and re-assessments in chlorophyll extraction and assay procedures for terrestrial, aquatic, and marine organisms, including recalcitrant algae. In: Scheer H (ed) Chlorophylls,3157(1991)
  6. Vicas S. I., Laslo V., Pantea S. and Bandict G. E., Chlorophyll and carotenoids pigments from Mistletoe Viscum album) leaves using different solvents, Fascicula Biol.,, 213218(2010)
  7. Tripathi A. K. and Gautam M., Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air Pollution, J. Environ. Biol., 28, 127132 (2007)
  8. James A.O. and Akaranta O., Inhibition of Zinc in Hydrochlororic acid solution by Red Onion Skin Acetone extract, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 1(1), 3137 (2011)
  9. Ritchie R. J., Consistent sets of spectrophotometric chlorophyll equations for acetone, methanol and ethanol solvents, Photosynth. Res., 89, 2741 (2006)
  10. Sartory D. P. and Grobbelaar J. U., Extraction ofchlorophyll a from freshwater phytoplankton for spectrophotometric analysis. Hydrobiol., 114, 177187(1984)
  11. Jeffrey S. W., Mantoura, R. F. C. and Wright S. W.,Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. UNESCO Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology, UNESCO Publishing, Paris., 10, (1997)
  12. Porra R. J., Thompson W. A. and Kreidemann P. E., Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectrometry, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 975, 384394 (1989)
  13. Porra, R. J., The chequered history of the development and use of simultaneous equations for the accurate determination of chlorophylls a and b, Photosynth. Res., 73, 149156 (2002)
  14. Lichtenthaler H. K., Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic membranes, Method Enzymol., 148, 350382(1987)
  15. Wright S. W., Jeffrey S. W. and Mantoura F. R. C., Evaluation of methods and solvents for pigment analysis. In: Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods, UNESCO Publ., Paris,261282(1997)
  16. Rowan K. S., Photosynthetic pigments of algae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1989)
  17. Scheer H., (ed) Chlorophylls. CRC Press Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, Boston, Landon,3157(1991)
  18. Lichtenthaler H. K. and Wellburn, A. R., Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents, Biochem. Soc. Trans., 11, 591592(1983)
  19. Wellburn A. R., The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution, J. Plant Physiol., 144, 307-313(1994)
  20. Dunn J. L., Turnbull J. D. and Robinson S. A., Comparison of solvent regimes for the extraction of photosynthetic pigments from leaves of higher plants, Functional Plant Biol., 31 195-202(2004)
  21. Vechetel B. W. and Ruppel, H. G., Lipid Bodies in Eremosphaeraviridis De Bary (Chlorophyceae), Plant Cell Phys., 31, 41-48 (1992)