International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

β-lactams and Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in influents and effluents of Wastewater treatment plants, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Author Affiliations

  • 1 School of Environmental Science and Technology, Ardhi University, P. O. Box 35176, Dar es Salaam, TANZANIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (6), Pages 31-36, June,18 (2014)


The outcomes of the wastewater contaminated with antibiotics entering the WWTPs of Dar es Salaam city were examined. This study aimed at evaluation of the quality of the disposed treated wastewater in order to find out the fate of the antibiotics in the city WWTPs. Antibiotics amoxicillin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin concentrations ranged from below detection limits (bdl) to 0.367 mg/l and bdl to 0.037 mg/l were measured in wastewater influents and effluents samples, respectively. In all the WWTPs, effluents concentrations were lower than their corresponding influents. Variations in levels of antibiotics in WWTPs were considered to be attributed to removal efficiency of individual WWTP and antibiotics prescription patterns in different locations of the city, which determine or affect influent concentrations. All the parameters were measured by standard methods.


  1. Kihampa C., Heavy metal contamination in water and sediment downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Intern. J. Environ. Sci., ), 1407-1415 (2013)
  2. Mudur G., Developing countries must balance access to antibiotics with action to curb resistance, Indian J. Med. Res.134, 281-294 (2011)
  3. Halling-Sorensen B., Nielson S. N., Lanzky P.F., Ingerslev F., Holten Lutzhoft J. and Jorgensen S. E. Occurance, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment, Chemosphere, 35, 357-393 (1998)
  4. Speltini A., Sturini M., Maraschi F. and Profumo A., Fluoroquinolone antibiotics in environmental waters: Sample preparation and determination, J. Sep. Sci., 33, 1115–1131 (2010)
  5. Khetan S. K. and Collins T. J., Human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: A challenge to green chemistry, Chem. Rev 107), 2319-2364 (2007)
  6. Kolpin D.W., Furlong E.T., Meyer M.T., Thurman E.M., Zaugg S.D., Barber L.B. and Buxton H.T., Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams, 1999-2000: A National Reconnaissance, Environmental Science and Technology, 36), 1202-1211 (2002)
  7. Sim W.J., Lee J.W. and Oh J.E., Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants and rivers in Korea, Environ. Pollut, 158, 1938-1947 (2010)
  8. Haggard B.E., Galloway J.M., Green W.R. and Meyer M.T., Pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals in selected North-Central and Northwestern Arkansas streams, J. Environ. Quality, 35), 1078-1087 (2006)
  9. Myllyniemi A.L., Rannikko R., Lindfors E. and Niemi A., Microbiological and chemical detection of incurred penicillin G, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in bovine and porcine tussues, Food Addit. Contam., 17, 991-1000 (2000)
  10. Mercola, M.J., Warning: Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics May Cause Permanent Nerve Damage (2013)
  11. Rosendahl I., Siemens J., Kindler R., Groeneweg J., Zimmermann J., Czerwinski S., Lamshöft M., Laabs V., Wilkem B., Vereecken H. and Amelung W., Persistence of the Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Difl oxacin in Soil and Lacking Eff ects on Nitrogen Turnover, J. Environ. Qual., 41, 1257-1283 (2012)
  12. Pena A., Chmielova D., Lino C.M. and Solich P., Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in surface waters from Mondego River by high performance liquid chromatography using a monolithic column, J. Sep. Sci.,30, 2924–2928 (2007)
  13. Vice President’s Office (VPO), State of the environment report. Division of environment, United Republic of Tanzania, (2008)
  14. Mara D.D., Appropriate wastewater collection, treatment and reuse in developing countries, Proc. Instn of Civil Eng.-Municipal Eng., 299–303 (2001)
  15. Michael I., Rizzo L., McArdell C.S., Manaia C.M., Merlin C., Schwartz T., Dagot C. and Fatta-Kassinos D., Urban wastewater treatment plants as hotspots for the release of antibiotics in the environment: A review, Water Res., 47, 957-995 (2013)
  16. Kaseva M E, Mwegoha W J S., Kihampa C. and Matiko S., Performance of a waste stabilization pond system treating domestic and hospital wastewater and its implications to the aquatic environment: A case study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, J. Building Econo., 151&2), 76-88 (2008)
  17. Kayombo S., Mbwette T., Mayo A., Katima J. and Jorgensen S., Waste stabilization ponds in Tanzania, Operation and Maintenance. In: The proceedings of the international symposium on engineering research partnership for sustainable development, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, (1998)
  18. Othman Z., Ali M. and Thyn J., Evaluation of hydraulic efficiency of waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), J. Radioanaly. Nucl. Chem., 206), 285-294 (1995)
  19. Cha J.M., Yang S. A and Carlson K.H., Trace determination of -lactam antibiotics in surface water and urban wastewater using liquid chromatography combined with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, J. Chromat. , 1115, 46–57 (2006)
  20. Sekul P. and Spiteller M., Fluoroquinolone antibiotics in the environment, Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 191, 131-162 (2007)