International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater of the steel city Durgapur, West Bengal, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Science, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, 731235, Birbhum, West Bengal, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (6), Pages 1-12, June,18 (2014)


Quality assessment of groundwater of the steel city Durgapur, West Bengal, India, was carried out to investigate what roles anthropogenic activities and various hydrogeochemical processes play on it, employing combinations of hydrogeochemical analyses and two multivariate statistical techniques, namely, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Values of analyzed parameters, namely, Na, K, Ca2+, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, Mg2+, HCO, NO, PO3-, SO2- and Cl reported wide variations which ranged from 49.50-248.50 mg/l, 1.70-225.00 mg/l, 29.70-217.40 mg/l, 4.90-6.83, 257-2501 S/cm, 170-1273 mg/l, 16-568 mg/l, 1.90-48.60 mg/l, 40-520 mg/l, 0.99-15.42 mg/l, 0.02-1.00 mg/l, 6.51-182.46 mg/l and 19-314 mg/l respectively. Analyzed results demonstrated roles of natural hydrogeochemical processes like weathering of silicates and carbonates and exchange of ions as well as human-made developmental activities responsible for affecting the groundwater quality. Anthropogenic control on groundwater chemistry emerged as a basic concern especially in the industrial areas, where some assessed parameters recorded much elevated levels.


  1. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)., Findings: Problem Areas, Chapter IV, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, Chapter4. pdf, Accessed on 20.03.2013 (2013)
  2. Parihar S.S., Kumar A., Kumar A., Gupta R.N., Pathak M., Shrivastav A. and Pandey A.C., Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Underground Water in and Around Gwalior City, MP, India, Res. J. Recent Sci.,1 (6), 62-65 (2012)
  3. Kumar M., Kumari K., Singh U.K. and Ramanathan A.L., Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Groundwater Environment of Muktsar, Punjab: Conventional Graphical and Multivariate Statistical Approach, Environ. Geol., 57, 873-884 (2009)
  4. Bhardwaj V., Singh D.S. and Singh A.K., Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater and Anthropogenic Control over Dolomitization Reactions in Alluvial Sediments of the Deoria district: Ganga plain, India, Environ. Earth Sci.,59, 1099-1109 (2010)
  5. Murhekar G.H., Assessment of Physico-Chemical Status of Ground Water Samples in Akot city, Res. J. Chem. Sci.,1 (4), 117-124 (2011)
  6. Deshpande S.M. and Aher K.R., Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Agriculture use in Parts of Vaijapur, District Aurangabad, MS, India, Res. J. Chem. Sci.,2 (1), 25-31 (2012)
  7. Wadhawan S.K., Base Document on Geosciences for Sustainable Development, Central Geological Programming Board, Geological Survey of India, Ministry of Mines, Government of India (2011)
  8. American Public Health Association (APHA)., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Centennial Edition, APHA, AWWA, WEF, Washington DC, USA (2005)
  9. Manoj K., Ghosh S. and Padhy P.K., Characterization and Classification of Hydrochemistry using Multivariate Graphical and Hydrostatistical Techniques, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 32-42 (2013)
  10. Landau S. and Everitt B.S., A Handbook of Statistical Analyses using SPSS, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press LLC, USA (2004)
  11. Praus P., Urban Water Quality Evaluation using Multivariate Analysis, Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 12 (2), 150-158 (2007)
  12. Singh K.P., Malik A. and Sinha S., Water Quality Assessment and Apportionment of Pollution Sources of Gomti River (India) using Multivariate Statistical Techniques-A Case Study, Anal. Chim. Acta,538, 355-374 (2005)
  13. Juahir H., Zain S.M., Yusoff M.K., Hanidza T.I.T., Armi A.S.M., Toriman M.E. and Mokhtar M., Spatial Water Quality Assessment of Langat River Basin (Malaysia) using Environmetric Techniques. Environ. Monit. Assess.,173, 625-641 (2011)
  14. Bhattacharyya R., Manoj K. and Padhy P. K., Index Analysis, Graphical and Multivariate Statistical Approaches for Hydrochemical Characterization of Damodar River and its Canal System, Durgapur, West Bengal, India. Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 2 (2), 53-62 (2013)
  15. Barai S.R. and Kumar S., Evaluation of the Physico-chemical Characteristics of River Varuna at Varanasi, India, J. Environ. Biol.,34, 259-265 (2013)
  16. World Health Organization (WHO)., Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Vol 1, Recommendations, Geneva (1997)
  17. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)., Indian Standard Drinking Water Specification (second revision of IS: 10500), Manak Bhawan, New Delhi, India (2004)
  18. Jayaprakash M., Nagarajan R., Muthusamy S., Gopal V., Viswam A. and Kalaivanan P., Groundwater Geochemistry of Neyveli Lignite Mine-Industrial Complex, Tamil Nadu, India and its Suitability for Irrigation, Int. J. Adv. Earth Sci. Eng.,, 27-42 (2012)
  19. Senthilkumar M. and Elango L., Geochemical Processes Controlling the Groundwater Quality in Lower Palar River Basin, Southern India, J. Earth Syst. Sci., 122, 419-432 (2013)
  20. Schoeller H., Qualitative Evaluation of Groundwater Resources, In: Methods and Techniques of Groundwater Investigations and Development, UNESCO, 5483 (1965)
  21. Aghazadeh N. and Mogaddam A.A., Investigation of Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Harzandat aquifer, Northwest of Iran, Environ. Monit. Assess.,176, 183-195 (2011)
  22. Kumar P.J.S. and James E.J., Physicochemical Parameters and their Sources in Groundwater in the Thirupathur Region, Tamil Nadu, South India, Appl. Water Sci.,, 219-228 (2013)
  23. Bhardwaj V. and Singh D.S., Surface and Groundwater Quality Characterization of Deoria District, Ganga plain, India, Environ. Earth Sci.,63, 383-395 (2011)
  24. Jankowski J. and Acworth R.I., Impact of Debris-flow Deposits on Hydrogeochemical Process and the Development of Dry Land Salinity in the Yass River Catchment, New South Wales, Australia, Hydrogeol J.,, 71-88 (1997)
  25. Meyback M., Global Chemical Weathering of Surficial Rocks Estimated from River Dissolved Loads, Am. J. Sci.,287, 401-428 (1987)
  26. Prasath B.B., Nandakumar R., Dinesh K.S., Ananth S., Shenbaga D.A., Jayalakshmi T., Raju P., Thiyagarajan M. and Santhanam P., Seasonal Variations in Physico-chemical Characteristics of Pond and Groundwater of Tiruchirapalli, India, J. Environ. Biol.,34, 529-537 (2013)
  27. Kresic N., Hydrogeology and Groundwater Modeling, 2ndEdition, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis group, Boca Raton, USA (2007)
  28. Todd D.K. and Mays L.W., Groundwater Hydrology, 3rdEdition, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India (2012)