5th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effect of Heat Treatment on Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Components of Melon (Citrullus colocynthis) Husks

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina state, NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, NIGERIA
  • 3 Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Azare, BAUCHI STATE

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (4), Pages 28-32, April,18 (2014)

Abstract

The effects of heat treatment (boiling and autoclaving) on the nutrient and anti-nutrient components of melon husk were investigated. The proximate compositions (crude protein, lipid, fibre, ash and carbohydrate), mineral constituents (Calcium(Ca), Potassium(K), Sodium(Na), Iron(Fe), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn), Magnesium(Mg) and Phosphorous(P)) and antinutrients compositions (Tannin, Oxalate, Phytate, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), Tripsin inhibitor (TIA), Amylase inhibitor (AIA) and Lectin) were determined using standard methods in three portions of melon husk: Raw, Boiled and Autoclaved. The results of the proximate analysis revealed that variations in the proximate composition of the differently treated husks were significant except for the lipid content. However, there was no significant difference between the proximate compositions of raw and autoclaved melon husks except for ash and carbohydrate contents. The results of mineral analysis showed that boiling caused significant reductions in all the mineral elements analyzed. All the detected antinutrients were significantly reduced by heat treatments (boiling and autoclaving) and autoclaving was found to be more effective in reducing the levels of antinutrients than boiling. The results therefore showed that autoclaving is more effective in reducing the levels of antinutrients and had lesser effect on the nutrient composition of melon husk than boiling. It is concluded that melon husk, if heat treated, could be an alternative source of feed for live stock

References

  1. Alkofahi A., Batshoun R., Owis W. and Najib N., Biological activity of some Jordanian plants extracts, Fitoterapia,5, 435–42 (1996)
  2. Achu, M.B., Fokou, E., Tchiegang, C., Fotso, M., and Tchouanguep, F.M.: Nutritive value of some curbitaceae oilseeds from different regions in Cameroon, Afr. J. Biotechnol., (11), 1329–1334 (2005)
  3. Egusi, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Retrieved June 08 2012 (2012)
  4. Oluba M.O., Ogunlowo Y.R., Ojieh G.C., Adebisi K.E., Eidangbe G.O. and Isiosio I.O., Physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of citrullus lanatus (Egusi melon) seed oil, J. Biol. Sci., (8), 814–817 (2008)
  5. Schafferman D., Beharav A., Shabelschy E. and Yaniv Z., Citrullus colocynthis, J. Arid of Environs.,40, 431-39 1998)
  6. Yusuf A.A., Adewuyi S. and Lasisi A.A., Physicochemical composition of leaves, meals and oils of fluted pumpkin Telfairia occidentalis) and molon (Citrullus vulgaris), Agric. J., (1), 32-35 (2006)
  7. Ziyada A.K. and Elhussien S.A., Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Citrullus lanatus Var. Colocynthoide Seed Oil, J. of Physical Sci., 19(2), 69–75 ( 2008)
  8. Oyenuga V.A., Nigerian Foods and Feeding Stuffs, Their Chemistry and Nutritive Values (Pp. 8 - 16; 86- 89), Ibadan: Ibadan University Press (1978)
  9. Oloyede O.B., Otunola G.A. and Apata D.F., Assessment of protein quality of processed melon seed as a component of poultry feed, Biokemistri, 16) 80-87 (2004)
  10. Moerman D., Native American Ethnobotany, Timber press, Oregon, 453- 459 (1998)
  11. Isak R.S. and Alamgir A.S., Utilization of Wheat Husk Ash as Silica Source for the Synthesis of MCM-41 Type Mesoporous Silicates: A Sustainable Approach towards Valorization of the Agricultural Waste Stream, Res. J. Chem. Sci.,11), 66 (2013)
  12. Martín-Cabrejas M.A., Aguilera Y., Pedrosa M.M., Cuadrado C., Hernandez T., Diaz S. and Esteban R.M., The impact of dehydration process on antinutrients and protein digestibility of some legume flours, Food Chem., 114, 1063-1068 (2009)
  13. Grant G., Lectins In: “Toxic Substances in Crop Plants” ed. by F.J.P.D’Mello, C.M. Duffus and J.H.Z. Duffus. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Cambridge CB4 4WF, Cambridge, 49-67 (1991)
  14. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C.). Official Methods of Analysis, 14th Edition, Washington D.C. (1995)
  15. Wheeler E.L. and Ferrel R.E., A method for Phytic acid Determination in Wheat Fractions, Cereal Chem., 48, 312-320(1971)
  16. Swain T., Tannins and Lignins In: Herbivores: Their Interactions with Plant Metabolites, Rosenthal, G.A. and D.H. Janzen (Eds.), Academic Press, NewYork (1979)
  17. Dye W.B., Chemical studies on halogton glomeruius, Weeds, 55-66 (1956)
  18. Bradbury M.G., S.V. Egen and J.H., Bradbury. Determination of all forms of cyanogens in cassava roots and cassava products using picrate paper kits, J. Sci., Food Agric.79, 593-601 (1999)
  19. Kakade M.L., Hoff D.E. and Liener I.E., Contribution of trypsin inhibitor of the deleterious effects of unheated soyabeans fed to rats, J. Nutr., 103, 1772-1779 (1974)
  20. Jaffe, W. G. Moreno, R. and Wallis, V. Amylase inhibitor in legume seeds, Nutr. Rep. Int. :169 ( 1973)
  21. Kortt, A.A. Purification and properties of the basic lectins from winged bean seed [Phosphocarpus tetragonolobus (L) D.C.], European J. Biochem., 138, 519 (1984)
  22. FAO Food Composition tables for the Near East. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO/UN), Rome, Food and Nutrition Paper, 26 (1982)
  23. Ogbe A.O. and George G.A.L., Nutritional and Anti-nutrient Composition of Melon Husks: Potential as Feed Ingredient in Poultry Diet, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences,2(2), 35-39 (2012)
  24. Udensi E.A., Onwuka G.I. and Okoli E.C., Effect of processing on the levels of some Antinutritional factors in Mucuna utilis, J. Plant Prod. Res., (), 1-7 (2003)
  25. Ugwu F.M. and Oranye N.A., Effects of some processing methods on the toxic components of African breadfruit (Treculia africana), African J. of Biotech.,22), 2329-2333 2006)
  26. Vijayakumari K., Pugalenthi M. and Vadivel V., Effect of soaking and hydrothermal processing methods on the levels of antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of Bauhinia purpurea L. seeds, Food Chemistry,103, 968 – 975 (2007)
  27. Vadivel V., Pugalenthi M. and Megha M., Biological evaluation of protein quality of raw and processed seeds of gila bean (Entada scendens Benth), Tropical and Subtropical Agro ecosystem,8, 125-133 (2008)
  28. Phytic acid, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Retrieved Jan 08 (2012)
  29. Amylase inhibitor, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Retrieved Jan 08 (2012)
  30. Evan A. and Worcester E., Kidney stone disease, J. Clin Invest., 11510), 598–608 (2005)
  31. Gogoi R., Niyogi, U.K. and Tyagi, A.K. Reduction in Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Jatropha cake by Chemical, Thermal and Radiation Treatment, Res. J. Chem. Sci., ), 17-19, January (2014)