5th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Phytotoxicity Assessment of Coir pith Effluent Generated during Lignin Recovery Process

Author Affiliations

  • 1 School of Environmental Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala - 682022, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (4), Pages 17-21, April,18 (2014)


Research programs are advancing for tackling the pollution risks of coir pith by converting the substrate into valuable products. The product development process shall generate byproducts or effluents that may be toxic in nature. An efficient oxidative delignification process was developed followed by lignin recovery from the process effluent. The toxicity assessment of effluent generated during lignin recovery process is of utmost importance for the safe disposal plans and the present study aims at assessing the phytotoxicity of the effluent. The test involved 96 hour exposure of Oryza sativa to 0.0% to 100% effluent concentrations. The parameters of analysis included root length (RL), shoot length (SL), seedling length (SDL), seed germination (SG), germination index (GI) and seed vigour index (SVI). The effluent produced significant inhibitory effect on growth of the plant. Root length (EC25=3.05, EC50=5.14) and germination index (EC25=2.78, EC50=4.78) were the most sensitive endpoints, whereas seed germination was the least sensitive (EC25=36.63, EC50=45.45). Based on sensitivity, different endpoints were arranged in decreasing order of sensitivity as: RL=GI>SDL=SVI>SL>SG. The outcome of this study points out the importance of further characterisation of the effluent generated during lignin recovery and adoption of suitable detoxification method.


  1. Vardhanan Shibu Y., Haridas Ajit and Manilal V.B., Closed Retting: A green Technology for Controlling Coir Retting Pollution of Backwaters, J. Env. Res. and Dev.,7(4A), 1523-1530 (2013)
  2. Vinidini S., Gnanambal V.S., Sasikumar J.M. and Padmadevi S.N., Growth of two medicinal plants using biodegraded coir pith, Plant Archives., (5), 277-280 (2005)
  3. Ramalingam A., Gangatharan M., and Kasthury Bain R., Solid state bio-treatment of coir pith and paddy straw, Asian J Microbiol. Biotechnol. Environ. Sci., 144-149 (2004)
  4. Rojith G., and Bright Singh I.S., Lignin recovery, biochar production and decolourisation of coir pith black liquor, Res.J.Recent Sci., 1(ISC-2011) , 270-274 (2012)
  5. Paulraj Kanmani, Karuppasamy P., Pothiraj C., and Venkatesan Arul., Studies on lignocellulose biodegradation of coir waste in solid state fermentation using Phanerocheatechrysosporium and Rhizopusstolonifer, Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8(24), 6880-6887, (2009)
  6. Srivastava Ajeet Kumar and Agrawal Pushpa, Microbial pretreatment of lignocellulosics materials and production of bioethanol, J. Environ. Res. Develop.,7(1A), 375-380 (2012)
  7. Thomas S., Sarfarag S., Mishra L.C. andIyengar L., Degradation of phenols and phenolic compounds by a defined denitrifying bacteria culture, World J Micro.Biotechnol., 18(1), 57-63, (2002)
  8. Rojith G., and Bright Singh I.S., Delignification, cellulose crystallinity change and surface modification of coir pith induced by oxidative delignification treatment, Int .J. Env iron. Bioene.,, 46-55 (2012)
  9. Rojith G., and Bright Singh IS, Hydrogen Peroxide Prettreatment Efiicieancy Comparison and Characterisation of Lignin Recovered from Coir pith Black Liquor, J. Environ. Res. Develop.,(4), 1333- 1339 (2013)
  10. Organisation for Economic Co-operation, Development (OECD), Terrestrial plants: growth tests, OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Paris, France, No. 208, (1984)
  11. Bhale U.N., Tolerance of Polluted Water on Seedling Growth of Some Cereal Crops, Int. J Latest Trends Bot.Sci., 1(1), 5-7 (2011)
  12. Cordova Rosa E.V., Simionatto E.L., de Souza Sierra M.M., Bertoli S.L. and Radetski C.M., Toxicity-based criteria for the evaluation of textile wastewater treatment efficiency., Environ Toxicol Chem 20(4), 839-45 (2001)
  13. Politycka B., Wojcik-Wojtkowiak D., Pudelski T., Phenolic compounds as a cause of phytotoxicity in greenhouse substrates repeatedly used in cucumber growing, Acta Hort., 156, 89–94 (1985)
  14. Tanaka F., Ono S., Hayasaka T., Identification and evaluation of toxicity of rice root elongation inhibitors in flooded soils with added wheat straw, Soil Sci. Plant. Nutr., 36, 97–103, (1990)
  15. Ma Y. B., and Nichol D. G., Phytotoxicity and Detoxification of, Fresh Coir Dust and Coconut Shell, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal, 35(1 & 2), 205–218, (2004)
  16. Johannes Schindelin, Ignacio Arganda-Carreras, Erwin Frise, Verena Kaynig, Mark Longair, Tobias Pietzsch, Stephan Preibisch, Curtis Rueden, Stephan Saalfeld Benjamin Schmid, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Daniel James White, Volker Hartenstein, Kevin Eliceiri, Pavel Tomancak and Albert Cardona, Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis, Nature Methods. 9(7), 676-682 (2012)
  17. R, Core Team, R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, (2005)
  18. URL: http://www.R-project.org/. 18.Ritz C., and Streibig J. C., Bioassay Analysis using R, J. Statist. Software., 12(5), 1-22 (2005)
  19. Persoone G., Marsalek B., Blinova I., Törökne A Zarina D., Manusadianas L., Nalecz-jawecki G., Tofan, Stepanova N., Tothova, Kolar B., A practical and user-friendly toxicity classification system with Microbiotests for natural waters and wastewaters, Enviro. Toxicol.,18, 395-402 (2003)
  20. Sangeeta Dey, Manabendra Dutta, Choudhury and Suchismita Das, A Review on Toxicity of Paper Mill Effluent on Fish, Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci. 2 (3), 17-23 (2013)
  21. Mekki A., Dhouib A., Sayadi S., Polyphenols dynamics and phytotoxicity in a soil amended by olive mill wastewaters, J Environ Manage., 84(2),134-40 (2007)
  22. Varma K.V.R., Swaminathan T., and Subrahmanyam V.P.R., Heavy Metal Removal with Lignin, J. Environ. Sci. Health.,A 25(3), 243-265, (1990)
  23. Kalaiselvi P., Mahimairaja S., Srimathi P. and Senthil Kumar G., Impact of Industrial Effluents in Seed Invigouration: A Review, Asian. J. Plan.t Sci., 9(5), 249-255 (2010)
  24. Zahoor Ahmad Bazi and Abdul Kabir Khan Achakzai, Effect of waste water from Quetta City on the Germination and Seedling Growth of Lettuce, J. Appl. Sci.,6(2), 380-382 (2006)
  25. Shrestha M. K., Niroula B., Germination Behaviour of Pea Seeds on Municipality Sewage and Some Industrial Effluents of Biratnagar, Our Nature,33-36 (2003)