International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Rooftop dust around Lake Nakuru Basin, Kenya

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Egerton University,. P.O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, KENYA
  • 2Department of Natural Sciences, Mount Kenya University,. P.O. Box 17273-00200, Nakuru, KENYA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (11), Pages 13-17, November,18 (2014)


Samples of sedimented dust on roofs from 34 locations within the Lake Nakuru Basin (LNB), Kenya were analyzed for their heavy metals content. The samples were analyzed for Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Cr. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 11.5 and Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets. The result of the analysis showed that Iron (Fe) has the highest concentration level followed by Zn, Cr, and Pb with mean values of 0.2 ppm, 5.1 ppm, 16.1 ppm and 0.3 ppm respectively while the concentration of Ni was below the detection limit. The results of the analysis were used to determine spatial dispersal and scale of heavy metals pollution with respect to direction. The results of this study reveal that heavy metals distribution is not significantly different in the various directions of the LNB.


  1. Adamu C. I., Nganje T. N., Ukwang E.E., Keneth A. and Peter N., A Study of the Distribution pattern of Heavy metals in surface soils around ArufuPb-Zn mine, Northeastern Nigeria, Using Factor Analysis, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 1(2), 70-80 (2011)
  2. Iwuoha G.N., Osuji L.C. and Horsfall M. Jnr., Index Model Analysis Approach to Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment in Sediments of Nworie and Otamiri Rivers in Imo State of Nigeria, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 2(8), 1-8 2012)
  3. Mohaupt V., Sieber U., van den Roovaart J., Verstappen, C.G., Langenfeld F. and Braun M., Diffuse sources of heavy metals in the Rhine basin, Water, Science and Technology, 44, 41 49 (2001)
  4. Davis B.S. and Birch G.F., Spatial distribution of bulk atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Metropolitan Sydney, Australia, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 214, 147-162 (2011)
  5. Abii T.A., Levels of Heavy Metals (Cr, Pb, Cd) Available for Plants within Abandoned Mechanic Workshops in Umuahia Metropolis, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 2(2), 79-82 (2012)
  6. EMEP Status Report 2, 2005. Heavy metals: Transboundary pollution of the Environment, Retrieved on July 10, 2012. Available at: pb_and_cd/SR/ Files/Submission%20IGO/ Submis_IGO_MSC-E.pdf, (2012)
  7. Li X.D., Poon C.S. and Pui S.L., Heavy metal contamination of urban soils and street dust in Hong Kong, Applied Geochemistry,16, 1361-1368 (2001)
  8. Sezgin N., Özcan H.K., Demir G., Nemliolu S. and Bayat C., Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway, Environment International, 29, 979-985 (2003)
  9. Charlesworth S., Everett M., McCarthy R., Ordoez A. and de Miguel E.A., A comparative study of heavy metal concentration and distribution in deposited street dusts in a large and a small urban area: Birmingham and Coventry, West Midlands, UK, Environmental International,29, 563-573 (2003)
  10. Varrica D., Dongarra G., Sabatino G. and Monna F., Inorganic geochemistry of roadway dust from the metropolitan area of Palermo, Italy, Environmental geology, 44, 222-230 (2003)
  11. Tokaholu . And Kartal ., Multivariate analysis of the data and speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from the Organized Industrial District in Kayseri (Turkey), Atmospheric Environment,40, 2797 – 2805 (2006)
  12. Markus J.A. and McBratney A.B., An urban soil study: heavy metals in Glebe, Australia, Australian Journal of Soil Research, 34, 453-465 (1996)
  13. Thornton I., Metal contamination of soils in urban areas. In: Bullock, P., Gregory, P. J. (Eds.), Soils in the urban environment, Blackwell, Oxford., 47-75 (1991)
  14. Wilcke W., Muller S., Kanchanakool N. and Zech W., Urban soil contamination in Bangkok: heavy metals and aluminium partitioning in topsoils, Geoderma, 86, 211-228 (1998)
  15. 5.Tüzen M., Determination of heavy metals in fish samples of the MidDamLake Black Sea (Turkey) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, Food Chemistry, 80, 19-123 (2003)
  16. Canlı M. and Atlı G., The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species, Environmental Pollution, 121, 129-136 (2003)
  17. Fernandes C., Fontaínhas-Fernandes A., Cabral D. and Salgado M.A., Heavy metals in water, sediment and tassues of Liza Saliensfrom Esmoriz–Paramos lagoon, Portugal, Environmental Monitory Assess, 136, 267-275 (2008)
  18. Mtanga A. and Machiwa J.F., Heavy metal pollution levels in water and oysters, Saccostreacucullata, from Mzinga Creek and RasDege mangrove ecosystems, Tanzania, Africa, Journal of Aquatic Science, 32, 235-244 (2007)
  19. McClanahan T.R. and Young T.P., East African Ecosystems and their Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York (1996)
  20. Department of Environment, Pollution Control Section. State of Environment Report. Toward better water quality management, Municipal Council of Nakuru, (2009)
  21. Parkinson J.A. and Allen S.E., A wet oxidation procedure suitable for the determination of nitrogen and mineral nutrients in biological materials, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 1-11(1975)
  22. Grimshaw H.M., The determination of total phosphorus in soils by acid digestion. In: Rowland, A.P., (ed.) Chemical analysis in environmental research, Abbotts Ripton, NERC/ITE, 92-95 (1987)
  23. Gadd J. and Kennedy P., House runoff: Is it as clean as we think? Second South Pacific Stormwater Conference (2001)
  24. Ferguson J.E., and Kim N., Trace elements in street dust and house dusts source and separation. Science of Total Environment, 100, 125-150 (1991)
  25. Akhter M., S. and Madany I. M., Heavy metals in street dust and house dust in Bahrain. Water, Air and Soil pollution, 66, 111-119 (1993)
  26. Pacyna J., M. In: Nriagu, J. O. and Davidson, C. I. (Eds.), Toxic Metals in the Atmosphere. Wiley, New York. pp. 1-32 (1986)
  27. Arslan H., Heavy metals in street dust in Bursa, Turkey, J. Trace Microprobe Tech., 19, 439–445 (2001)
  28. Jiries A., Hussein H. and Halaseh Z., The quality of water and sediments of street runoff in Amman, Jordan, Hydrol. Process, 15, 815–824 (2001)
  29. Bhattacharya T., Chakraborty S., Fadadu B. and Bhattacharya P., Heavy Metal concentrations in Street and Leaf Deposited Dust in Anand City, India, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 1(5), 61-66(2011)
  30. Kumar S., Singh J., Das S. and Garg M., AAS Estimation of Heavy Metals and Trace elements in Indian Herbal Cosmetic Preparations, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 2(3), 46-51, (2012)