5th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Funaria hygrometrica moss as Bioindicator of Atmospheric Pollution of Heavy Metals in Makurdi and Environs, North Central Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology Research Group, Department of Chemistry,Benue State University, Makurdi, NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Chemistry, College of Advanced and Professional Studies, Makurdi, NIGERIA
  • 3 Department of Chemical Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, NIGERIA
  • 4 Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Oju, Benue State, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (10), Pages 10-17, October,18 (2014)

Abstract

Samples of Funaria hygrometica moss were collected at eleven (one of which was a control) different locations in Makurdi town and analyzed for their heavy metals contents. The concentrations of eight heavy metals; lead (Pb), copper (Cu),cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) were determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). The mean levels and standard deviation of heavy metals in the moss samples were found to be: Pb (0.5750.74 g/g); Cu (2.0343.59 g/g); Cr (0.2960.22 g/g); Fe (18.95512.61 g/g); Cd (0.0010.007 g/g); Ni (0.0020.003 g/g); Zn (2.3621.49 g/g); Mn (0.2870.39 g/g). Iron had the highest average concentration of 18.955g/g while Cd had the least average concentration of 0.001g/g. The amount of these metals were observed to follow the trend Fe> Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Mn>Ni>Cd. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.988; p < 0.01) in the samples collected at commercial and industrial areas. Also, there was a significant correlation in metal levels collected at residential and industrial areas (r = 0.996; p < 0.01). In a similar way, a positive correlation existed between the levels of metals in commercial and residential areas (r = 0.997; p < 0.01). There was a strong correlation at 0.05 significance between Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu while the correlation of Fe, Pb and Zn was insignificant in all the studied locations. From the results, iron (Fe) was found to be the most abundant metal in the study area. Heavy metals pollution load in the analyzed samples was in the order; industrial> commercial> residential. The results showed that Makurdi atmosphere is not polluted with respect to these heavy metals based on NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency) standards.

References

  1. Baeva K., Stafilov T., ajn, R. and Tselia C., Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of a ferronickel smelter plant, Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, 47, 645656 (2012)
  2. Balabanova B., Stafilov T., Sajn R. and Baceva. K, Comparison of response of moss, lichens and attic dust to geology and atmospheric pollution from copper mine,International journal of Environmental Science and Technolog, 11, 517- 528(2013)
  3. Angelovska S., Stafilov T., Balabanova B., Sajn R. and Baceva k. Applicability of Atomic Emission and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Variability Assessment of Trace and Macro-Elements Content in Moss Species from Pb-Zn Mine Environment, Modern Chemistry and Applications,,123-128 (2014)
  4. Harmens H., Foan L., Simon V. amd Mills G., Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review, Environmental Pollution,173, 245254 (2013)
  5. Shakya Pavan Raj and Pradhananga Achut, Determination & contamination Assessment of Pb, Cd and Hg in Roadside Dust along Kathmandu- Bhaktapur Road section of Arniko Highway, Nepal, Res. J.Chem.Sci. , 3(9), 18-25 (2013)
  6. Spiric Z., Vuckovic I., Stafilov T., Kusan V. and Frontasyeva M., Air pollution study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring and ICP-AES and AAS analytical techniques, Arch Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 65, 33-46 (2013)
  7. Kularatne K.I.A. and De Freitas C.R., Epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of airborne heavy metal pollution. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 88, 2432 (2013)
  8. Torseth K., Aas W., Breivik K., Fjaeraa A.M., Fiebig M., Hjellbrekke A.G., Myhre C.L., Solberg S. and Yttri K.E., Introduction to the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and observed atmospheric composition change during 19722009, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 54475481 (2012)
  9. Vuckovic I., Spiric Z., Stafilov T. and Kusan V. Atmospheric deposition of cadmium in Croatia studied by using moss biomonitoring technique and ICPAES, Geologica Macedonica, 26, 11-19 (2013)
  10. Zalud P., Szakova J., Sysalova J. and Tlustos P. Factors influencing uptake of contaminated particulate matter in leafy vegetables, Central European Journal of Biology, 519530 (2012)
  11. Fatoba P.O. et al, Ogunkunle C.O., Oyedeji S. and Salawudeen, M.B., Heavy Metal Depositions around some Petroleum Product Depots in Nigeria, using Mosses as Biomonitorsm, The Bioscientist, 1(1),99-105 (2013)
  12. Saitanis C. J., Frontasyeva M. V., Steinnes E., Palmer M. W., Ostrovnaya T. M. and Gundorina S. F., Spatiotemporal distribution of airborne elements monitored with the moss bags technique in the Greater Thriasion Plain, Attica, Greece, Environment Monitoring Assessment,185, 955968 (2013)
  13. Asutosh K. P., Atmospheric deposition of Heavy metals in urban environment (indoor), Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences. Sec D, 3(3), 2297-1302 (2013)
  14. Babatunde S.B. and Oladewa T.O., Heavy Metals Concentrations in Roadside Dust of Different Traffic Density, Journal of Environmental and Earth Science,2(8), 2224-3216 (2012)
  15. Ekpo B.O., Uno U.A., Adie A.P. and Ibok U.J., Comparative Study of Levels of Trace Metals in Moss Species in Some Cities of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(3), 127-135 (2012)
  16. Nwadiogbu J.O., Nwankwere E.T., Eze K.A. and Chime C. C., Trace metals in airborne Harmattan Dust in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, Archives of Applied Science Research,5(3), 159-163(2013)
  17. Aloysius A.P., ShaAto R. and Offem J. O., Contributions of Automobile Mechanic Sites to Heavy Metals in Soil: A Case Study of North Bank Mechanic Village Makurdi, Benue State, Central Nigeria, Journal Chemical Biological Physical Science. Sec. D, 3(3), 2337-2344 (2013)
  18. Pam A.A., ShaAto R. and Offem J.O., Contributions of Automobile Mechanic Sites to Heavy Metals in Soil: A Case Study of North Bank Mechanic Village Makurdi, Benue State, Central Nigeria, Journal of Chemical Biological and Physical Sciences, 3(3), 2337-2347 (2013)
  19. Akan J.C., Audu S.I., Zakari M. and Ogugbuaja V.O. Assessment of Heavy Metals, pH, Organic Matter and Organic Carbon in Roadside Soils in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Protection, 618-628 (2013)
  20. Dauda M.S. and Odoh R., Impact of motor parks on the concentration of heavy metals in some selected urban areas of Benue state, Nigeria, Der Chemica Sinica, 3(3), 737-744(2012)
  21. Shaikh Parveen R. and Bhosle Arjun B, heavy. Metal Contamination in soils near Siddheshwar Dam Maharashtra, India, Res.J.Chem.Sci. 3(1), 6-9 (2013)
  22. Barandovski L., Frontasyeva M.V., Stafilov T., ajn R., Pavlov S. and Enimiteva V., Trends of atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, Journal of Environment Science and Health, A, 47(13), 20002015 (2012)
  23. Oklo D.A. and Asemave K., Heavy Metal Contents of Tree Barks as indicator of Pollution in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State Nigeria, International Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology,2(4), 45-48 (2012)
  24. Elbagermi M.A., Edwards H.G.M. and Alajtal A.I.,Monitoring of Heavy Metals Content in Soil Collected from City Centre and Industrial Areas of Misurata, Libya,International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 20(13), 5-12(2013)
  25. Schroder W., Pesch R., Hertel A., Schonrock S., Harmens H., Mills G. and Ilyin I., Correlation between atmospheric deposition of Cd, Hg and Pb and their concentrations in mosses specified for ecological land classes covering Europe, Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4,267-274 (2013)