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Assessment of Some Trace Metals Content of Oreochromis niloticus Obtained from River Okpokwu, Apa Benue State, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P.M.B. 102119, Makurdi NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 3, Issue (3), Pages 70-75, March,18 (2013)


This study was conducted with the aim of determining the concentrations of As, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Fe in whole Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) and its fresh water habitat using recommended analytical procedures and compare the results with WHO‟s permissible limits. Samples of fresh water and the fish were collected weekly at the peak of rainy and dry seasons in the study area (October, 2010 and February, 2011) respectively at three locations; Auke, Odejo and Ochalanya along the river. Across the sampling points, the results obtained using Unicam Solar (32) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer showed that the trace metal contents of Oreochromis niloticus varied between 0.050.01g/g As to 0.380.04g/g Fe in October, 2010 and 0.090.03g/g As to 0.280.02g/g Fe in February, 2011. The water levels of the trace metals ranged from 0.060.02g/L As to 1.240.05g/L Fe in October, 2010 and 0.040.01g/L As to 0.590.10g/L Fe in February, 2011. There were positive correlations between the concentrations of the trace elements in the whole fish and river water. T-test analyses of the levels of the trace metals between the sampling periods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The levels of the trace metals recorded in this study were below WHO's permissible limits. Therefore, the water and Oreochromis niloticus obtained from the study area have not become contaminated by the trace metals studied. However, periodic review should be sustained to monitor possible accumulations of the heavy metals in future due to the proliferation of anthropogenic activities around river Okpokwu.


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