International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Chemical Characterization of Airborne Particulates of Kathmandu, Nepal

Author Affiliations

  • 1Pulchowk Campus Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, NEPAL
  • 2Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, NEPAL
  • 3Depart of Physics Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NORWAY
  • 4School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, University of Incheon, Incheon, SOUTH KOREA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 3, Issue (10), Pages 88-96, October,18 (2013)

Abstract

Particulate matters of different aerodynamic diameter were collected on 47mm quart filter using Omni frm Ambient air Sampler from 9th March 2010 to 28th April 2010.The collected particulate matter 24-h samples were analyzed for 13 nonionic and 9 ionic components. Black Carbon concentration was also monitored for the same duration using AE 31 Magee Scientific Aethalometer. The chemical analysis shows dominating concentration of silicon in all the samples followed by Na+ ,Fe, SO4 2-, Ca2+, NH4+ and Cl-with common radicals NO3 - ,NO2 -, K+ , Mg2+ and metals Ni, Pb, Al, Ag, Ti, V, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn. Only four samples out of all the analyzed samples has shown the presence of F. PM10 with 105.16g/m3 was the highest value of particulate matter while black carbon for the same duration was 12.97 g/m3 .The variation of particulate matters for the observed period was from 105.16 - 56.47g/m3 and that for black carbon 21.8 - 4.7g/m3 . The present observation shows that major contributor in the particulate matter are derived from roadsuspension, vehicular emission and domestic activities. Irrespective to the nature of particulate matters of different aerodynamic diameter analyzed most of the ionic and metallic components are common in all the analyzed samples reflecting their common impact on human health.

References

  1. Sharma M. and Maloo S., Assessment of ambient air PM10 and PM2.5 and characterization of PM10 in the city of Kanpur., India, Atmos. Environ., 39(33), 60156026 (2005)
  2. Voutsa D., Samara C., Kouimtzis Th., and Ochsenkuhn, Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter in the multi-impacted urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece, Atmos. Environ., 36, 4453-4462 (2002)
  3. Stone E., Schauer J., Quraishi T.A. and Mahmood A., Chemical Characterization and source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter in Lahore, Pakistan, Atmos. Environ., 44, 1062-1070 (2010)
  4. Forsberg H., Hansson H.C., Johansson C., Areskong H., Persson K. and Jarvholm B., Comparative health impact assessment of local and regional particulate air pollutant in Scandinavia, Ambio., 34,11-19 (2005)
  5. Kim B.M. and Henry R.C., Application of SAFER model to the Los Angeles PM10 data, Atmos. Environ., 34, 1747-1759 (2000)
  6. Weckwerth G., Verification of traffic emitted aerosol components in the ambient air of Cologne (Germany), Atmos. Environ, 35, 5525-5536 (2001)
  7. Kgabi NA., Pienaar JJ. and Kulmala M., Characterization of inhalable atmospheric particulate aerosols. In: Air Pollution XVI, Brebbia CA and Long hurst JWS (Eds), Journal of scientific research WIT Press, Southampton, 323-334 (2008)
  8. Pacyna J.M., Atmospheric trace elements from natural and anthropogenic sources. In J. O. Nriagu, and C. I. Davidson (Eds.), Toxic chemical species in the atmosphere. New York: Wiley (1986)
  9. Lin C.C., Chen S.J., Huang K.L., Hwang W.I., Chang-Chien G.P. and Lin W.Y., m Characteristics of metals in nano/ultrafine/fine/coarse particles collected beside a heavily trafficked road, Environ. Science and Tech., 39(21), 81138122 (2005)
  10. Birmili W., Allen A., Bary F. and Harrison, Trace metal concentrations and water solubility in size- fractioned atmospheric particles and influence of road traffic, Environ. Science and Tech., 14(4), 1144-1153 (2006)
  11. Morawska L and Zhang J., Combustion sources of particles.1. Health relevance and source signatures, Chemosphere., 49, 104558 (2002)
  12. Harrison R.M., Smith D.J.T., Pio C.A. and Castro L.M., Comparative receptor modeling study of airborne particulate pollutants in Birmingham (United Kingdom), Coimbra (Portugal) and Lahore (Pakistan). Atmos. Environ., 31, 3309-3321 (1997)
  13. Hien P.D., Binh, N.T., Truong Y., Ngo N.T. and Sieu L.N., Comparative receptor modeling study of TSP, PM2 and PM2-10 in Ho Chi Minh City, Atmos. Environ., 35, 2669-2678 (2001)
  14. Arditsoglou A. and Samara C., Levels of total suspended particulate matter and major trace elements in Kosovo: A source identification and apportionment study, Chemosphere, 59, 669-678 (2005)
  15. Valavanidis A., Fiotakis K., Vlahogianni T., Bakeas E.B., Triantafillaki S., Paraskevopoulou V. and Dassenakis M., Characterization of atmospheric particulates, particle-bound transition metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of urban air in the centre of Athens (Greece), Chemosphere, 65, 760-768 (2006)
  16. Nel A., Air pollution-related illness: effects of particles. Science, 308, 804-806 (2005)
  17. Russell A.G. and Brunekreef B., A focus on particulate matter and health, Environ. Science and Tech., 43, 4620-4625 (2009)
  18. Hannigan M.P., Busby W.F., Cass G.R., Source contributions to the mutagenicity of urban particulate air pollution, J.Air and Waste Manage. Assoc., 55, 399-410 (2005)
  19. Staniswalis J.G., Parks N.J. and Maldonado Y.M., Temporal analysis of airborne particulate matter reveals a dose-rate effect on mortality in ElPaso: indications of differential toxicity for different particle mixtures, J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc., 55, 893-902 (2005)
  20. Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO), Air Quality Assessment in Kathmandu City, Kathmandu (1993)
  21. Sharma R.K., Bhattarai B.K., Sapkota B.K., Gewali M.B. and Kjeldstad B., Black carbon aerosols variation in Kathmandu valley, Nepal, Atmos. Environ., 63, 282-288 (2012)
  22. Sharma R.K., Bhattarai B.K., Sapkota B.K., Gewali M.B., Amatya N.B. and Kjeldstad B., Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol from Vehicles and Industries in Kathmandu-A Case Study, Res.J.Chem.Sci., 2(11), 34-39 (2012)