International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Composition and Acute Toxicity Study on Aqueous Extract of Combretum dolichopentalum Leaf in Swiss Albino Mice

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Biochemistry Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (8), Pages 72-75, November,18 (2011)


Studies on the phytochemical and macronutrient composition of the leaves of Combretum dolichopentalum were carried out. The qualitative phytochemical composition shows the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, steroid, glycosides and resins. The quantitative phytochemical composition shows that it contains 5.765 0.002 mg/100g tannin, 800.003 mg/100g flavonoids, 0.0330.003 mg/100g cyanide, 8.717 0.003 mg/100g alkaloids, 17.86 0.002 mg/100g saponins and 6.9690.005 mg/100g steroid. The macronutrients obtained include 2.1010.003 mg/100g soluble carbohydrate and 200.00.002 mg/100g reducing sugar. The result of acute toxicity (LD50), showed C. dolichopentalum leaf extract to be lethal at doses 3000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. This study revealed that C. dolichopentalum is a rich source of phytochemical and reducing sugar, which if adequately processed will not only offer chemoprotective benefits to its users, but could also serve as a good source of nutrient.


  1. Dasture A.N., Herbal Therapy, Ancient science of life, 21 () :281-286 (2002)
  2. Hills A.F. Economic Botany. A textbook of Useful Plants and plant products. 2nd McGraw Hilll Book Company Inc., New York p. 91 (1952)
  3. Cho E., Seddom J., Ronser B., Willet W. and Hakinson S., Prospective study on the intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins and carotenoids and related muscucopathy. Arch. Opthamol., 122, 883-892 (2004)
  4. Edeogu H.O., Okwu D.E. and Mbacble B.O., Phytochemical constituent of some Nigerian medicinal plants, African Journal. Biotechnology,), 685-688(2005)
  5. Mahdi A.A., Rathore B., Chandra A., Paul B.N., Singh R.K., Das S.K., Bajpai M. and Chander R. Free radicals and antioxidants in diabetes and arthritis, Possible role of herbal medicines, Book of abstract (2005)
  6. Mahdi A.A., Rathore B., Das S.K. and Paul B.N. Comparative studies of different organ ofN.arbortristis in modulation of lipid peroxide levels, antioxidant content, cytokines and effect on hepatic and renal marker enzyme in experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Book of abstract, 3rdinternational symposium on natural antioxidant molecular mechanisms and health effects (2005b)
  7. Asuzu I.U. and Onoh O.U., Anti-ulcer activity of the ethanol extract of Combretum dolichopentalum. Journal of crude drug research, 25, 44-48 (1988)
  8. Harborne J.B., Phytochemical methods, A guide to modern technique of plant analysis London, Chapman and Hall, 54-60 (1984)
  9. Evans C.W., Trease and Evans pharmacognosy, 14th edition, WB Saunders company limited, London, 268-270 (1996)
  10. Pearson D., The chemical analysis of food, Churchill livingstone Edinburgh, 3 (1976)
  11. Lorke D., A New Approach to Practical Acute Toxicity Testing, Arch Toxicol, 54, 275-287 (1983)
  12. Trease, G. E. and Evans, W. C.. Phenols and Phenolic glycosides. In: Textbooks of Pharmacology (12th edition) Balliese, Tindall and co publishers, London. Pp. 343 383 (1983)
  13. Liu, R.H. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J. Nutr. 34: 3479S- 3485S (2004)
  14. Raza H and John A. In vitro protection of Reactive oxygen species- induced degradation of lipid, proteins and 2-deoxyribose by tea catechins. Food and chemical toxicology.45; 1814 -1820 (2007)
  15. Ujowundu C. O., Kalu F.N., Okafor E.O., Agha C.N., Alisi S.C and Nwaoguikpe R.N. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Dacryodes edulis (G. don) Seeds Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci.(4): 1225-1233, (2010)
  16. Owoyele B.T, Olayele S.B. and Elegba R.A . Antiinflammatory and Analgesic activities of leaf Extract of Landolphia owerensis. Afr. J. Biomed. Res, 30): 131-133(2002)
  17. Enechi OC, Odonwodo I. Assessment of the Phytochemical and Nutrient composition of Pulverized Root of Cissus quadrangularis. J.Biol. Res. Biotechnol. : 63-68. (2003)
  18. Okaka J.C, Enoch N.J. and Okaka N.C. Human nutrition: an integrated approach. Enugu ESUT publications, Pp 57-58(1992)
  19. Ujowundu C. O., Kalu F. N., Emejulu A.A., Okafor O.E., Nkwonta C.G. andNwosunjoku E. C. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Mucunautilis leaves used in herbal medicine in Southeastern Nigeria Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (11), 811- 816 (2010)
  20. Middleton E. Kandaswami C. and Theoharides T.C. The effects of plant flavonoid on mammalian cells: Implication for inflammation, heart disease and cancer. Pharmcol. Rev, 52): 673-751 (2000)
  21. Sharma R.K., Chatterji S., Rai D.K., Mehta. S., Rai P.K., Singh R.K., Watal C.R. and Sharma B. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the aqueous extract of some Indian medicinal plants . J. Med. Plants Res,ii):44-1948 (2009)
  22. Price K.R., Johnson L.J. and Fenwick G.R. The chemical and biological significance of saponins in food and feeding stuffs. C.R.C. Crit Rev. Food Sci. Nutri26: 27-135(1987)
  23. Shi J, Arunasala K., Yeung D., Kakuda Y., Mittal G and Jiang Y. Saponins from edible legumes: Chemistry processing and health benefits. Journal of Medicinal Food. ) 67 78(2004)
  24. Abu A.E., Anigo, K.M., Bawa G.S., Chindo P.S., James D.B. and Takubu L.B. Evaluation of some traditional processing methods on nutrients composition of in vitro protein digestibility of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) Nig.J.Sci.Res. 65 (2005)
  25. Cheeke P.R. Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 87. 1536-1554(1995)
  26. McMahon J.M., White W.L.B., Sayre R.T. Cyanogenesis in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) J. Exp. Bot., 46; 731-741 (1995)
  27. Siddhuraju P., Vijayakumari K. and Janardhanan K. Chemical composition and protein quality of the little known- legume, velvet bean (mucuna pruriens (L) DC). J. Agric food chem., 44:2636- 2641 (1996)
  28. Effiong G.S, Ibia T.O. and Udofia U.S. Nutritive and energy values of some wild fruit species in south eastern Nigeria. Electron Journal Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 8(100) 917-923(2009)
  29. Zbinden G and Flury-Roversi M. Significance of the LD50 test for the toxicological evaluation of chemical substances. Arch. Toxicol.; 4792: 77(1981)
  30. Link/URL: Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals, 2003.(Accessed January 15th, 2010 at ltext.html