International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Growth and Characterization of Vacuum Evaporated WO3 Thin Films for Electrochromic Device Application

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Physics, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada – 520008, INDIA
  • 2Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati – 517 502, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (7), Pages 92-95, October,18 (2011)


WO3 thin films were prepared by vacuum evaporation technique. The deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, deposition rate, film –substrate combination, vacuum during the film deposition were controlled. The influence of substrate temperature on the composition and structure of WO films has been studied. The density of the films was found to be dependent on the substrate temperature and increased from 5.0 to 6.5 g/cm (accuracy ± 0.1 g/cm) with increasing temperature from 303 to 553 K and then slightly decreased with further increase of temperature. The films formed at Ts ~ 503 K and heat treated in air at 673 K for six hours showed 20.59 wt% of oxygen indicating that the films attained highest oxidations state (W+6) which is comparable with the starting material. The WO films deposited at Ts ~ 503 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K for 6 hours in air showed characteristic (020), (021), (002) orientationsrepresenting the orthorhombic phase of WO3.


  1. Arof A. K., Saniman E. B. and Mastor M. Z., Some properties of Agl-AgO-MoO3 electrolyte doped with Al J. Phys. III France, 849-858 (1994)
  2. Granqvist C. G., Electrochromic tungsten oxide films: Review of progress 1993-1998, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells,60, 201-262 (2000)
  3. Ashrit P.V., Bader G. and Truong V.V, Novel electrochromic devices based on complementary nanocrystalline TiO2 and WO3 thin films, Thin Solid Films, 320, 324-329 (1998)
  4. Woodward P.M., Sleight A.W. and Vogt T., Ferroelectric tungsten trioxide, J. Sol. State Chem.,131, 9-17 (1997)
  5. Antonaia A., Polichetti T., Addonizio M.L., Aprea S., Minarini C. and RubinoA., Modification of vapor-deposited WO3 electrochromic films by oxygen backfilling, Thin Solid Films,354, 73-81 (1999)
  6. Tagtstrom P. and Jansson U., Chemical vapour deposition of epitaxial WO films, Thin Solid Films, 352, 107-113 (1999)
  7. Joraid A. A. and Almari S. N., Effect of annealing on structural and optical properties of WO thin films prepared by electron-beam coating, Physica B: Physics of Condensed Matter, 391, 199-205 (2007)
  8. Hussain O.M., Swapnasmitha A.S., John J. and Pinto R., Structure and morphology of laser-ablated WOthin films, Appl. Phys. A, 81, 1291-1297 (2005)
  9. Ottaviano L., Rossi M. and Santucci S., Initial stages of WO growth on silicon substrates, Thin Solid Films,490, 59-67 (2005)
  10. Rao M.C., Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical conduction behaviour of vacuum evaporated WO thin films, J. Optoelect. & Biomedical Mater., 3, 45-50 (2011)
  11. Deb S.K., Optical and Photoelectric Properties and Color Centers in Thin Films of WO3, Philos. Mag., 27, 801-822 (1973)
  12. Kaneko H., Nagao F. and Miyake K., Preparation and properties of the dc reactively sputtered tungsten oxide films, J. Appl. Phys.,63, 510-517 (1988)
  13. Kaneko H., Miyake K. and Teramoto Y., Electrochemichromism of rf reactively sputtered tungstenoxide films J. Appl. Phys., 53, 4416-4421 (1982)