5th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Adsorptive Removal of Crystal Violet Dye Using Agricultural Waste Cocoa (theobroma cacao) Shell

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore - 641004, INDIA
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Chikkanna Arts College, Tirupur- 641602, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (7), Pages 38-45, October,18 (2011)


In this study, the ability of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao)Shell Activated Carbon (CSAC) to adsorb Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution was investigated. Activated carbon was prepared from cocoa shell, an agricultural waste and batch mode adsorption experiments were conducted. The influence of various factors such as initial concentration (20, 40, 60,80mg/lt), contact time, pH (1.0-10.0) and carbon dosage on the adsorption capacity were investigated and optimal experimental conditions was ascertained. Adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Raduskevich (DR) adsorption isotherms. Adsorption kinetics was verified by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The kinetic adsorption data fitted the pseudo-second order kinetic model well and also followed the intra-particle diffusion model. The results indicated that CSAC could be employed as low cost adsorbent in waste water treatment for the removal of CV.


  1. Namasivayam C., Radhika R. and Suba S., Uptake of dyes by a promising locally available agricultural solid waste: coir pith, Waste Manag., 21, 381-387 (2001)
  2. Gupta G.S., Prasad G. and Singh V.N., Removal of chrome dye from aqueous solutions by mixed adsorbents: fly ash and coal, Water Res.,24, 4550 (1990)
  3. Neamtu M., Yediler A., Siminiceanu I., Macoveanu M. and Kellrup A., Decolorization of disperse red 354 azo dye in water by several oxidation processes -a comparative study, Dyes Pigments, 60, 6168 (2004)
  4. Wahi R.K., Yu W.W., Liu Y.P., Meija M.L., Falkner J.C., Nolte W. and Colvin V.L., Photodegradation of Congo Red catalyzed by nanosized TiO2, J. Molecular Catal. A: Chem.,242, 4856 (2005)
  5. Mounir Bennajaha, Yassine Darmaneb, Mohammed Ebn Touhamic and Mostapha Maalmia, A variable order kinetic model to predict defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation-electroflotation, Int .J. Engg. Sci. Tech.,2(12), 42-52 (2010)
  6. McKay G., Blair H.S. and Gardner J.R., Adsorption of dyes on chitin. I. Equilibrium studies, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.,27, 3043-3057 (1982)
  7. Monash P. and Pugazhenthi G., Adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution using mesoporous materials synthesized at room temperature, Adsorption, 15, 390-405 (2009)
  8. Pollard S.J.T., Fowler G.D., Sollars C.J. and Perry R., Low-cost adsorbents for waste and wastewater treatment: a review, Sci. Total Environ., 116, 31-32 (1992)
  9. Geopaul N., Some methods for the utilization of waste from fibre crops and fibre wastes from other crops, Agri Waste., 2, 313-318 (1980)
  10. El-Geundi M.S., External mass transport processes during the adsorption of basic dyestuffs onto Maize Cob, Adsor. Sci. Technol., 7(3), 124-132 (1990)
  11. Somasekhara Reddy M.C., Removal of direct dye from aqueous solutions with an adsorbent made from tamarind fruit shell, an agricultural solid waste, J. Sci. Ind. Res., 65, 443-446 (2006)
  12. Namasivayam C. and Kavitha D., Removal of congo red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste, Dyes Pigments,54, 47-58 (2002)
  13. Senthil Kumar P., Ramalingham S., Senthamarai C., Niranjanaa M., Vijayalakshmi P. and Sivanesan S., Adsorption of dye from aqueous solution by cashew nut shell: Studies on equilibrium isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of interactions, Desalination,261, 5260 (2010)
  14. Ofomaja A.E. and Ho Y.S., Equilibrium sorption of anionic dye from aqueous solution by palm kernel fibre as sorbent, Dyes Pigments,74, 6066 (2007)
  15. Namasivayam C. and Kanchana N., Waste banana pith as adsorbent for colour removal from wastewaters, Chemosphere,25, 1691-1705 (1992)
  16. Malik P.K., Dye removal from wastewater using activated carbon developed from sawdust: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics, J. Hazard. Mater., B113, 8188 (2004)
  17. Hameed B.H., Equilibrium and kinetic studies of methyl violet sorption by agricultural waste, J. Hazard. Mater., 154, 204-212 (2008)
  18. Theivarasu C., Mylsamy S. and Sivakumar N., Kinetics, Isotherm and Thermodynamic studies of adsorption of Congo Red Aqueous Solution onto COCOA Shell Activated Carbon, Res. J, Chem. Env., 15(2), 34-38 (2011)
  19. Kannan N., A study on removal of nickel by adsorption on flyash. Ind. J. Env. Prot., 11(7), 514-518 (1991)
  20. Minguang Dai, Mechanism of Adsorption for Dyes on Activated Carbon, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 198, 6-10 (1998)
  21. Dogan M., Ozdemir Y. and Alkan M., Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of cationic methyl violet and methylene blue dyes onto sepiolite, Dyes Pigments,75,701713 (2007)
  22. Anoop Krishnan K., Sreejalekshmi K.G. and Sumol Varghese, Adsorption retention of citric acid onto activated carbon derived from Hevea braziliansis sawdust: Kinetic and isotherm overview, Desalination, 257, 46-52 (2010)
  23. Hall K.R., Eagleton L.C., Acrivos A. and Vermeulen T., Pore-and solid-diffusion kinetics in fixed-bed adsorption under constant-pattern conditions, I&EC Fundam.,5, 212223 (1966)
  24. Siew-Ling Hii, Su-Yee Yong and Ching-Lee Wong, Removal of rhodamine B from aqueous solution by sorption on Turbinaria conoides(Phaeophyta), J. Appl. Phycol.,21, 625-631 (2009)
  25. Gamal Owes El-Sayed, Removal of methylene blue and crystal violet from aqueous solutions by palm kernel fiber, Desalination,272, 225-232 (2011)
  26. Aysun Ergene, Kezban Ada, Sema Tan and Hikmet Katiciolu, Removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto immobilized Scenedasmus quadricauda: Equilibrium and kinetic modeling studies, Desalination 249, 1308-1314 (2009)
  27. Adraina S., Franca, Leandro S., Oliveria and Mauro E., Ferreira, Kinetics and equilibrium studies of methylene blue adsorption by spent coffee grounds, Desalination,249, 267-272 (2009)
  28. Ho Y.S. and McKay G., A Two-Stage batch sorption optimized design for dye removal to minimize contact time, TransIChemE, 76(B), 183-191 (1998)
  29. Wong S.Y., Tan Y.P., Abdullah A.H. and Ong S.T., Removal of Basic Blue 3 and Reactive Orange 16 by Adsorption onto quartenized Sugarcane Bagasse, Mal. J.Anal. Sci., 13(2), 185-193 (2009)
  30. Ahmed El Nemr, Ola Abdelwahab, Amany El-Sikaily and Azza Khaled, Removal of Direct blue-86 fromaqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel, J. Hazard. Mater.,161,102-110 (2009)
  31. Kannan K. and Sundaram M.M., Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption on various carbons - a comparative study, Dyes Pigments,51, 25-40 (2001)
  32. Panday K.K., Prasad G. and Singh V.N., Mixed adsorbent for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions, Environ. Technol. Lett.,50(7), 547-554 (1986)