International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effect of Heavy metal and Magnesium Sulfate on Properties of Blended Cement Mortar

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Kallam Haranadha Reddy Institute of Technology, Guntur -522019, (A.P.), INDIA
  • 2 Dept. of Civil Engineering, S V U College of Engineering, S V University, Tirupati -517502, (A.P.), INDIA
  • 3 Dept of Civil Engineering, J N T U A College of Engineering, J N T U A, Anantapur - 515 002, (A.P.), INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (7), Pages 27-32, October,18 (2011)


The effect of cadmium (Cd) present in mixing water on compressive strength, setting times, soundness and magnesium sulfate attack of high strength cement mortar was experimentally evaluated. Cement mortar specimens were cast using deionised water and cadmium (Cd) spiked deionized water for reference and test specimens as mixing waters respectively. On comparison with reference specimens, at higher concentrations of cadmium in mixing water, test samples had shown considerable loss of strength and also their setting times had significantly increased. However, at 2000 mg/L concentration of cadmium (Cd), the compressive strength marginally increased. Apart from that when reference specimens and test specimens were immersed in various concentrations of magnesium sulfate solution at different immersed ages, the loss in compressive strength was found to have been a slightly less in test specimens than that in reference specimens. XRD technique was employed to find out main compounds.


  1. Neville A., water and concrete-A love-hate relationship,Point view, Concrete International, 22, 34-38 (2000)
  2. Reddy Babu G., Sudarsana Rao H. and Reddy Ramana. I.V., Effect of metal ions in industrial wastewater on cement setting, strength development and hardening, The Indian concrete Journal, 83, 43-48 (2009)
  3. Hooton R.D., Influence of silica fume replacement of cement on physical properties and resistance to sulfate attack, freezing, thawing and alkali silica reactivity, ACI Materials journal, 90, 143-151 (1993)
  4. Steinour Harold H., Concrete mix water-How impure it can be? P.C.A Research and Development Labs, 2, 32-50 (1990)
  5. Reddy Babu G., Effect of metal ions in industrial wastewater on setting, compressive strength, hardening and soundness of cement, Ph D, Thesis submitted to J N T University Anantapur (2009)
  6. Reddy Babu G., Sudarsana Rao H, and Reddy Ramana. I.V., Use of Treated Industrial Wastewater as Mixing Water in Cement Works, Nature Environment and Pollution Technology Journal, 6, 595-600 (2007)
  7. Mindess S. and Young J.F., Concrete Prentice-Hall, Inc, Engle wood Cliffs, 112-116 (1981)
  8. Tay J.H. and Yip W.K., Use of reclaimed wastewater for concrete mixing, ASCE, 113, 1156-1161(1987)
  9. Reddy Ramana I.V., Reddy Prasad, N.R.S., Reddy Babu G., Kotaiah B. and Chiranjeevi P., Effect of biological contaminated water on cement mortar properties, The Indian Concrete journal, 80, 13-19 (2006)
  10. Cebeci O.Z. and Saatci A.M., Domestic sewage as mixing water in concrete, ACI Journal, 86, 503-506 (1989)
  11. Tashiro C., Proceedings of the 7th International congress of chemistry of cement, Paris, 11, 11-37 (1980)
  12. Barth E.E., Solidification of hazardous wastes, park Ridge, New York, Noyes data (1990)
  13. Al-Amoudi O.S.B., Rasheeduzzafar., Maslehuddin M., and Abduljawad S.N., Influence of chloride ions on sulphate deterioration in plain and blended cements, Mag Concr.Res, 46 (167), 113-123 (1994)
  14. Al-Amoudi O.S.B., Abduljawad S.N., Rasheeduzzafar., and Maslehuddin M., Effect of chloride and sulphate contamination in soils on corrosion of steel and concrete, Transport Res Rec, 1345, 67-73 (1992)
  15. Knudsen T., Quantitative analysis of the compound composition of cement and cement clinker by X ray diffraction, American ceramic society bulletin, 55 (12),1052-1055 (1976)