International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

The Use of Anion Geochemistry in Mapping Groundwater Facies of Yola Area NE Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Yola, NIGERIA
  • 2 Geology Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (6), Pages 30-41, September,18 (2011)


This study was aimed at employing anion geochemistry in mapping groundwater facies in Yola area of Northeastern Nigeria. The concentration levels of sulphate were analysed using the HACH Spectrophotometer model No DR/2400 whereas those of Cl, COand HCO HCO– were done by titrimetric method. The results of the analysed dissolved anions are recorded as HCO (16.2 to 19.2 mg/l), Cl (0.50 to 0.80 mg/l) and SO(1.60 to 3.55 mg/l) for the rainwater and HCO (73.30 to 273 mg/l), Cl (27.90 to 455.20 mg/l) and SO2- (2 to 29.11 mg/l)for the surface water samples. The shallow groundwater and deep groundwater revealed values of HCO (19.90 to 240 mg/l), Cl (0 to 170.17 mg/l) and SO (0 to 35 mg/l) and HCO (50 to 207 mg/l), Cl (0.004 to 159.40 mg/l) and SO2- (0 to 64.50 mg/l) respectively. The absence of SO2- and relatively high concentration of bicarbonate in some of the samples could be attributed to sulphate reduction. The reaction is believed to take place in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria in the soil zone through which recharge water percolates. The absence of some ions such as COand SO and the varied concentration levels in others such as Cl and HCO also affect the types and numbers of mappable facies in surface water and groundwater systems. Mappable groundwater facies for the different water sources are the bicarbonate-chloride-sulphate facies for the rainwater and the chloride-sulphate-bicarbonate for the surface water and groundwater systems respectively. The results further revealed that the groundwater has a local meteoric origin that evolves towards the composition of sea water. It also suggests that their chemical evolution is associated mainly with progressive dissolution and/or weathering of minerals along the flow paths.


  1. Postma, D. and Appelo, C.A.J. Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution 2nd Edition A.A Balkema Netherlands, 375-537 (1999)
  2. Chebotarev, I. .I Metamorphism of natural waters in the crust of weathering. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta.,(8), 22-212 (1955)
  3. Toth, J. Groundwater geology, movement, chemistry and resources near Olds, Alberta Res., Council Alberta, Canada Geol. Div. Bull. (17), (1966b)
  4. Amadi, P.A, Ofoegbu, C.O. and Morrison, T. Hydrochemical Assessment of Groundwater Quality in parts of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environ. Geol. Water Sci., 14(3), 195-202 (1989)
  5. Back W. Origin of hydrochemical facies and groundwater flow patterns in the Atlantic Coastal Plains, Report XX1 Int. Geol. Congress Nordend Pt, (1), 87 (1960)
  6. Schoeller H. Les Eaux Souterraines Mason et Cie Paris Schwartz F W and Zhang H (2003) Fundamentals of groundwater, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 583 (1962)
  7. Toth, J. The role of regional gravity flow in the chemical and thermal evolution of groundwater. Proc. First Canadian/American Conference on hydrogeology, Banff Alberta, (1984)
  8. Egboka B.C.E and Amadi P.A. The use of anion geochemistry in mapping groundwater facies in the Portharcourt area of the Niger Delta, Nigeria Global Jour. Geol. Sci., (2), 155-166 (2010)
  9. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 20thedn, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC(1998)
  10. Back W, Hydrochemicalfacies and groundwater flow patterns in northern part of Atlantic Coastal Plains, US Geol. Surv. Profess. Papers 498-A(1966)
  11. Domenico P.A. Concepts and models in groundwater hydrology McGraw-Hill Book Company New York, 288-293 (1972)
  12. Back W, Hydrochemicalfacies and groundwater flow patterns in northern part of Atlantic Coastal Plains, US Geol. Surv. Profess. Papers 498-A (1996)
  13. UNESCO/WHO Water quality surveys. Studies and Reports in Hydrology, (23), 62-78 (1978)
  14. Davis S.N and Dewiest R.J.M Hydrogeology John Wiley and Sons, New York 463 (1966)
  15. Obiefuna, G.I. and Orazulike, D.M. The hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of groundwater in semiarid Yola area NE Nigeria Res. Jour. Env. Earth Sci.,3(4), 400-416 (2011)
  16. Mercado, A. C The use of hydrochemical patterns in carbonate, sands and sandstone aquifers to identify intrusion and flushing of saline water, Groundwater 23, 635-645(1985)
  17. Freeze R.A and Cherry J.A. Groundwater New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc., 247-252 (1979)
  18. Schwartz, F W and Zhang H Fundamentals of groundwater John Wiley and Sons, New York, 583 (2003)