International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Biodegradation of Waste gas containing mixture of BTEX by B. Sphaericus

Author Affiliations

  • 1Chemical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, INDIA
  • 2Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Agra, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (5), Pages 52-60, August,18 (2011)


In the present study, a biofilter reactor was effectively applied to remove BTEX from polluted air streams. A biological study was performed by isolation in solid agar slant media and contained cell shapes was identified by using an electron microscope. It was identified for seven different isolates that this mixed culture was gram positive. These strains were cultivated on substrates with BTEX as a carbon and energy sources. From seven isolates, Bacillus sphaericus was identified for biodegration of BTEX. All isolates cultivated in a pH range from 3-11 with an optimum range of 6-8, which was applicable for the temperature range of 15-45oC giving a optimum range of 25-30oC. The batch studies were carried out at five different initial BTEX concentrations ranging from 25-500 mg L-1 . B. sphaericus was able to give 100% degradation of BTEX at 200 mg L-1 after 72 hr. but for xylene it was around 90%. Finally the results signify that the B. sphaericus degrades BTEX at a faster rate and this strain can be used proficiently in biofilter for treating highly polluted air streams.


  1. Mohseni M. and Grant A.D., Bio filtration of mixtures of hydrophilic and hydrophobic volatile organic compounds, Chem. Eng. Sci., 55,1545–1558 (2000)
  2. Delhoménie M. and Heitz M., Biofiltration of air: a review, Crit. Rev. Biotechnol 25, 53–72 (2005)
  3. Crocker B. and Schnelle K., Air pollution control for stationary sources, in: R.A. Meyers (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 151–213 (1998)
  4. Mathur A.K., Sundaramurthy J. and Balomajumder C., Kinetics of the removal of mono-chlorobenzene vapour from waste gases using a trickle bed air biofilter, J. Hazard Mater,B137, 1560–1568(2006)
  5. Mathur A.K. Majumder C.B. and Chatterjee S., Combined removal of BTEX in air stream by using mixture of sugar cane bagasse, compost and GAC as biofilter media, J. Hazard Mater,148, 64–74 (2007)
  6. Kennes C. and Thalasso F., Waste gas biotreatment technology, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol,72, 303– 319 (1998)
  7. Kelly W.R., Hornberger G.M., Herman J.S. and Mills A.L., Kinetics of BTX biodegradation and mineralization in batch and column systems, J. Contam. Hydrol,23, 113–132 (1996)
  8. Lee J.Y., Choi Y.B. and Kim H.S., Simultaneous biodegradation of toluene and pxylene in a novel bioreactor: experimental results and mathematical analysis, Biotechnol. Progr, 9, 46–53 (1993)
  9. Lee J.Y., Roh J.R. and Kim H.S., Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for the simultaneous biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene mixture, Biotechnol. Bioeng,43, 1146–1152 (1994)
  10. Hassan A.A. and Sorial G.A., Removal of benzene under acidic conditions in a controlled Trickle Bed Air Biofilter, J. Hazard Mater,184, 345–349 (2010)
  11. Aranda E., Marco-Urrea E., Caminal G., Arias M.E., García-Romera I. and Guillén F., Advanced oxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) by Trametes versicolor, J. Hazard Mater,181, 181–186 (2010)
  12. Gibson D.T., Zylstra G.J. and Chauhan S., Biotransformations catalyzed by toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida F1. In: Pseudomonas: Biotransformations, Pathogenesis and Evolving Biotechnology, American Society of Microbiology, Washington D.C, 121–132 (1990)
  13. Assinder S.J. and Williams P.A., The tol plasmids: determinants of the catabolism of toluene and the xylenes, Advance. Microb. Physiol, 31, 1–69 (1990)
  14. Mohan D., Sing K.P., Sinha S. and Gosh D., Removal of pyridine from aqueous solution using low cost activated carbons derived from agricultural waste materials, Carbon.,42, 2409–2421 (2004)
  15. Mohan D., Sing K.P., Sinha S. and Gosh D., Removal of pyridine derivatives from aqueous solution by activated carbons developed from agricultural waste materials, Carbon., 43, 1680–1693 (2005)
  16. Lataye D.H., Mishra I.M. and Mall I.D., Removal of pyridine from aqueous solution by adsorption on bagasse fly ash, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,45, 3934–3943 (2006)
  17. Kumar R., Mishra I.M. and Mall I.D.,Treatment of pyridine bearing wastewater using activated carbon, Res. Ind.,40, 33 (1995)
  18. Zhu S., Bell P.R.F. and Greenfield P.F., Adsorption of pyridine onto spent Rundle oil shale in dilute aqueous solution, Water Res.,22 (10), 1331–1337 (1988)
  19. Sabah E. and Celik M.S., Interaction of pyridine derivatives with sepiolite, J. Colloid Interface Sci.,251, 33 (2002)
  20. Bludau H., Karge H.G. and Niessen W., Sorption, sorption kinetics and diffusion of pyridine in zeolites, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater,22, 297 (1998)
  21. Pandey R.A., Padoley K.V., Mukherji S.S., Mudliar S.N., Vaidya A.N., Rajvaidya A.S. and Subbarao T.V., Biotreatment of waste gas containing pyridine in a biofilter, Bioresour. Technol,98, 2258–2267 (2006)
  22. Mohan S.V., Sistla S., Guru R.K., Prasad K.K., Kumar C.S., Ramakrishna S.V. and Sarma P.N., Microbial degradation of pyridine using Pseudomonas sp. and isolation of plasmid responsible for degradation, Waste Manage,23, 167–171 (2003)
  23. Pandey R.A., Joshi P.R., Mudliar S.N. and Deshmukh S.C., Biological treatment of waste gas containing mixture of monochlorobenzene (MCB) and benzene in a bench scale biofilter, Bioresour. Technol.,101, 51, 68–5174 (2010)
  24. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (Eds: R.E.Buchanan, N.E. Gibbons), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD (1974)
  25. Lodge J.P., Methoda of Air Sampling and Analysis, Lewis Publishing Inc, New York (1989)