International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assessment of Physicochemical Contaminants in Waters and Fishes from Selected Rivers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022, Keffi, NIGERIA
  • 2Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022, Keffi, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (4), Pages 6-17, July,18 (2011)

Abstract

Levels of physicochemical parameters (pH, phosphate, chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate, turbidity,conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand,temperature, total hardness and total solid) and microbiological properties were determined in the water samples collected from Rivers Doma, Farinruwa and Mada in Nasarawa State, Nigeria using standard analytical techniques. Metals (Na, K, Ni, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Se, Cr and Mn) were also determined from two different fish species (Tilapia zilli and Clarias lazera) caught from these three rivers using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results of physicochemical analyses showed that phosphate and nitrate ions were not present in the water samples during dry season but present in the wet season. Other physicochemical parameter values fall within WHO standard limits. Microbiological tests revealed that Rivers Doma and Mada were not safe for drinking. Magnesium had the highest concentrations in the bodies of two fish species irrespective of the season when the fish was caught followed by calcium while the least concentrated metal was arsenic. Lead and cadmium in the fish samples were not within the detectable range of AAS. Nickel level in the fish sample from Mada River during dry season exceeded the WHO maximum tolerable limit. Therefore, source protection is proposed for these bodies of water for the benefit of mankind because they were not safe for human consumption.

References

  1. Ademoroti C.M.A., Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Foludex Press Ltd; Ibadan, Nigeria, 20 30 (1996)
  2. Mark W. R., Ximing C. and Sarah A. C. World Water and Food to 2025; dealing with security. International Food Policy Research Institute, NY. Washington, DC. USA (2002)
  3. Edenam M. O., Omanu, A. M. and Fapetu O. M. Microbiological and physicochemical analyses of different sources of drinking water in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Nigeria J. Microbiology,15(1), 57 67 (2001)
  4. Aremu M.O. Environmental pollution by toxic heavy metals and its possible abatement for developing a healthy ecosystem. In: Environment Health and Nutrition:Global Perspective. BasuS. K. and Banik, S. D. (eds), APH Publishing Inc. New Delhi, India, 79 97 (2008)
  5. Adeyeye E.I. and Abulude F.O., Analytical assessment of some surface and ground water resources in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, J. Chem. Society, Nigeria, 39, 93 103 (2004)
  6. Aremu M. O., Sangari D. U., Musa B. Z., and Chaanda M. S. Assessment of groundwater and stream quality for trace metals and physicochemical contaminants in Toto local government area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Int. J. chem. Sci., 1(1) 8 19 (2008)
  7. Aremu M. O. and Inajoh A., Assessment of elemental contaminants in water and selected seafoods from River Benue, Nigeria. Current World Environment,2(2), 205 212 (2007)
  8. Cain J. R., Paschal D. C., Hayden C. M., Toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in the colonial green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 9 16 (1980)
  9. Atolaiye B. O., Aremu M. O., Shagye D. and Pennap G. I., Determination and concentration of some mineral elements in sediments, ambient water and the body parts of Clarias gariepinusi and Tilapia guineensis fishes in River Tammah, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Current World Environment, 1(2) 95 100 (2006)
  10. Aremu M.O. Atolaiye B.O., Shagye, D. and Moumouni A, Determination of trace metals in Tilapia zilli, Clarias lazera fishes associated with water and sediments from River Nasarawa in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Indian J. Multi. Res.,3(1), 159 168 (2007)
  11. Obaje N. G., Nzegbuna A. I., Moumouni A. and Ukaonu C. E. Geology and mineral resources of Nasarawa State. Bulletin of Department of Geology and Mining, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria(2005)
  12. Ibok U. J., Udosen E. D. and Udoidiong O. Heave metals in fishes from streams in Ikot Ekpene area of Nigeria. Nig. J. Tech. Res., 1, 61 68 (1989)
  13. American Public Health Association (APHA) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewaters, 19th ed., American Public Health Association (APHA), New York (1995)
  14. USEPA, United States Environmental Protection agency Current Drinking Water Standards. Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water: Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2002)
  15. Adeyeye E.I. and Abulude F. O., Analytical assessment of surface and ground water resources in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. J. Chemical Soc. Nigeria,29, 93 103 (2004)
  16. Templeton R. G. Freshwater Fisheries Management Fishing. New Books Lted., Pamham, Survey, 183,(1984)
  17. Fleck H. Introduction to Nutrition, 3rd edn, New York, Macmillan (1976)
  18. Sutchcliffe J. F. and Baker D. A. Plants and Minerals Salt. Studies in Biology, No. 48, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, 61, (1974)
  19. Okoye C.O. B. Lead and other metals in dried fish from Nigerian markets. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.,52,825 832 (1994)
  20. Bebbinton C. N., MacCay N. J., Chvoijka R., William R. J., Dunn A and Anty E. H. Heavy metals, selenium and arsenic in nine species of Austrialian commercial fish. Aus. J. Mar. Freshwater Res.,28, 277 286 (1977)
  21. Lafantaiine A. Health effects of As. In: Trace Metals: Exposure and Health Effects. CEC and Pergamon Press, 107 116 (1979)
  22. Berma E. Toxic metals and their analysis, Herden, 85, (1980)
  23. Hutton, M. Human health concerns of lead, mercury and arsenic. In: Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic in the Environment.Hutchinson, T. C. and Meema, K. M. (eds.). Wiley, SCOPE, 85 94 (1987)
  24. Nriagu J. O. A silent epidemic of environmental metal poisoning. Environ. Pollut., 50, 139 161 (1988)
  25. Ozturk M., Ozozen G., Minareci O. and Minareci E. Determination of heavy metals in fishes, water, sediments of Avsar dam lake in Turkey. Iran J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 6(2),73 80 (2009)
  26. Al-Weher S. M. Levels of heavy metals Cd, Cu and Zn in three fish species collected from the northern Jordan valley, Jordan. Jordan J. Biol. Sci.,1(1), 41 46 (2008)
  27. WHO, World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 3rd edition, Vol. 1, Geneva (2004)