International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Implementation of the vegan diet among obese hypothyroid housewives living in metro cities - A review

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Nutrition, Seacom Skills University, Kendradangal, Birbhum, West Bengal, India

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 8, Issue (1), Pages 21-24, February,28 (2020)


Hypothyroidism is one of the major health issue often associated with overweight or obesity among sedentary women. Recent studies showed that approximately 10.95% of women are suffering from mild or moderate hypothyroidism and 8.0% are from subclinical hypothyroidism in India. Since last 5 years, numbers of hypothyroid women who are also associated with obesity and other comorbidities have been rising at very fast. Most recommended western medicine, Levothyroxine is very popular and applied therapy by physicians or endocrinologists keeping in mind about the contraindications for long term treatment. The best probable ways are changing the lifestyles along with healthy and proper diet devoid of toxic chemicals i.e. endocrine disruptors. This study can provide some overview of the best possible diet plans made upon safe and effective low-calorie foods to combat obesity which is also positively correlated with hypothyroidism. The study focuses mostly on used diet types in India by sedentary women whether belonging to the middle class or upper-class families primarily for weight loss which may control thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxine hormone both or vice-versa. Every typical diet has a specific role on specific health issue although diet as an organized meal plan by counting the calorie, often considered a hypothetical therapy in addition to the western treatment protocol. So ‵food as medicine' approach could be similarly helpful for obese hypothyroid patient mainly living in metro cities in India.


  1. Bagcchi S. (2014)., Hypothyroidism in India: More to be done., The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 2(10), 778.
  2. Banerjee S. (2018)., A Study on Relationship between Hypothyroidism and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Obese Women in Kolkata Intervening with Diet., International Journal of Research and Development, 3(10), 43-45.
  3. Biondi B. (2010)., Thyroid and obesity: An intriguing relationship., Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95(8), 3614-3617. jc.2010-1245
  4. Unnikrishnan A.G., Kalra S., Sahay R.K., Bantwal G., John M. and Tewari N. (2013)., Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India., Indian J Endocrinol Metab., 17(4), 647-652.
  5. Menon U.V., Sundaram K.R., Unnikrishnan A.G., Jayakumar R.V., Nair V. and Kumar H. (2009)., High Prevalence of undetected thyroid disorders in an iodine sufficient adult south Indian population., J Indian Med Assoc., 107, 72-77.
  6. Kokkoris P. and Pi-Sunyer F.X. (2003)., Obesity and endocrine disease., Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 32(42), 895-914.
  7. Aoki Y., Belin R.M., Clickner R., Jeffries R., Phillips L. and Mahaffey K.R. (2007)., Serum TSH and total T4 in the United States population and their association with participant characteristics: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002)., Thyroid, 17, 1211-1223.
  8. Douglas C.C., Lawrence J.C., Bush N.C., Oster R.A., Gower B.A. and Darnell B.E. (2007)., Ability of the Harris-Benedict formula to predict energy requirements differs with weight history and ethnicity., Nutrition Research, 27(4), 194-199.
  9. Massart F., Ferrara P. and Saggese G. (2012)., Environmental Thyroid Disruptors and Human Endocrine Health., A New Look at Hypothyroidism, 3(5), 772-1572.
  10. Usha V.M., Sundaram K.R., Unnikrishnan A.G., Jayakumar R.V., Nair V. and Kumar H. (2009)., High prevalence of undetected thyroid disorders in an iodine sufficient adult south Indian population., Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 107(2), 72-77.
  11. Sharma R., Bharti S. and Kumar K.H. (2014)., Diet and thyroid - myths and facts., J Med NutrNutraceut, 3(2), 60-75.
  12. Tonstad S., Nathan E., Oda K. and Fraser G. (2013)., Vegan diets and hypothyroidism., Nutrients, 5(11), 4642-4652.
  13. Report (2012)., Let them eat air., The Guardian. 28 September 1999. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  14. Hunter, Fiona (April 2011)., Vegetarian and vegan diets., BBC Health. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  15. Craig W.J. and Mangels A.R. (2009)., Position of the American dietetic association: vegetarian diets., J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 109, 1266-1282. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027.
  16. Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M., Buckova K., Klimes I. and Sebokova E. (2003)., Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans., Ann. Nutr. Metab., 47, 183-185.
  17. Leung A.M., LaMar A., He X., Braverman L.E. and Pearce E.N. (2011)., Iodine status and thyroid function of Boston-area vegetarians and vegans., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 96(8), E1303-E1307.
  18. Montonen J., Boeing H., Fritsche A., Schleicher E., Joost H.G., Schulze M.B., Steffen A. and Pischon T. (2013)., Consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread in relation to biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress., Eur. J. Nutr., 52, 337-345. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-012-0340-6.
  19. Unnikrishnan A.G. and Menon U.V. (2011)., Thyroid disorders in India: An epidemiological perspective., Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 15(Suppl2), S78-S81.
  20. Reinehr T. (2011)., Obesity and thyroid function., Mol Cell Endocrinol, 316, 165-171.
  21. Sanyal D. and Raychaudhuri M. (2016)., Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link., Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 20(4), 554.
  22. Hoermann R., Midgley J.E.M., Larisch R. and Dietrich J.W. (2013)., Recent Advances in Thyroid Hormone Regulation: Toward a New Paradigm for Optimal Diagnosis and Treatment., Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8, 364.
  23. Anandhasayanam A., Arivudainambi T., Kannan S. and Udaya Chander J.S.J. (2016)., Prevalence of Hypothyroidism and Its Co-Morbidities In Relation To the Causes and Risk Factors in Patients Undergoing Levothyroxine Therapy., Int J Pharm Sci Res, 7(3), 1251-1257.
  24. Buckley C.D. (2006)., Fibroblasts and tissue remodeling (2007): Defining a role for fibroblasts in the persistence of chronic inflammation., Presented at Society for Endocrinology BES, Birmingham, UK. Endocrine Abstracts 13. S9.
  25. Verma A., Jayaraman M., Kumar H.K. and Modi K.D. (2008)., Hypothyroidism and obesity., Cause or effect,' Saudi Med J., 29, 1135-1138.
  26. Murthy M.B. and Murthy B.K. (2012)., Thyroid disruptors and their possible clinical implications., Indian journal of pharmacology, 44(4), 542-543.
  27. Studies R.A. (2012)., Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Food., 48.
  28. Banerjee S. (2019)., Study on Yoga Intervention along with Diet on Hypothyroidism Associated with Obesity among Sedentary Working Women in West Bengal., International Journal of Yoga and Allied Sciences, 8(1), 1-10.