Evaluation of the parasympathetic neural outflow to the heart during different phases of menstrual cycle as assessed by heart rate variability: a cross-sectional study
- 1Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum-590010, Karnataka, India
- 2Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum-590010, Karnataka, India
Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 5, Issue (5), Pages 1-7, August,28 (2017)
Decrease in parasympathetic neural activity has been a predictor for development of diseases like cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension etc., measuring the vagal outflow in humans using invasive techniques is difficult which has paved way for Heart rate variability (HRV) which is anoninvasive tool for assessing periodic and non-periodic variations in HR which in women is affected by endogenoussex hormones. The aim was to compare the cardiac parasympathetic tone during follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle using the frequency and time domain parameters of HRV. Thirty female students aged 17-20 years were subjected to ECG recording which was fractionated analogally into Time and Frequency Domain Analysis during follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle. Data was analyzed statistically using studentís pair t-test. The difference in Mean HR, Rmssd, NN5o, pNN50 and HF nu was found to be statistically significant in follicular and luteal phase. Estrogen during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle promotes vagal outflow while the Progesterone during the luteal phase promotes sympathetic activity hence we conclude that the sex hormones during menstrual cycle interact with ANS affecting the regulation of the heart.
- Barrett K.E., Brooks H., Boitano S. and Barman S.M. (2012)., Reproductive Development and Function of the Female Reproductive System., 24th edition, Ganong
- Hall J.E. (2011)., Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones., Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology,12th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 987-1002.
- Preston R.R. and Wilson T.E. (2013)., Female and Male Gonads., In: 1st edition, Lippincott
- Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology (1996)., Heart Rate Variability Standards of Measurement, Physiological Interpretation, and Clinical Use., Circulation, 93, 1043-1065.
- Camm A.J. and Malik M. (1996)., Heart rate variability Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use., European Heart Journal, 17, 354-381.
- Lindqvist A. (1990)., Noninvasive methods to study autonomic nervous control of circulation., Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 588, 1-107.
- Girder S.S., Pederson C.A., Stern R.A. and Light K.C. (1993)., Menstural cycle and premenstrual syndrome : Modifi-ers of cardiovascular reactivity in women., Health Psy-chol, 12(3), 180-192.
- Saleh T.M. and Connell B.J. (2007)., Role of oestrogen in the central regulation of autonomic function., Clin. Exp. Pharmacol Physiol, 34(9), 827-832.
- Genazzani A.R., Stomati M., Morittu A., Bernardi F., Monteleone P., Casarosa E., Gallo R., Salvestroni C. and Luisi M. (2000)., Progesterone, progestagens and the central nervous system., Hum Reprod, 15(Suppl 1), 14-27.
- Gibson A. (1981)., The influence of endocrine hormones on the autonomic nervous system., J Auton Pharmacol., 1(4), 331-358.
- Tsuji H., Larson M.G., Venditti F.J., Manders E.S., Evans J.C., Feldman C.L. and Levy D. (1996)., Impact of reduced heart rate variability on risk for cardiac events., The Framingham Heart Study, Circulation, 94(11), 2850-2855.
- Malik M. (1996)., Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use., Eur Heart J., 17, 354-381.
- Shetty Sneha, Pai Sheila R., Nayanatara A.K., Bhat Ramesh and Shetty Balachandra A. (2010)., Comparative study of time and Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability in different phases of Menstrual cycle., Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, 5(7), 469-473.
- Goldstein D.S., Levinson P. and Keiser H.R. (1983)., Plasma and urinary catecholamine during the human ovulatory cycle., J Obstet Gynecol, 146(7), 824-829.
- Sato N., Miyake S., Akatsu J. and Kumashiro M. ( 1995)., Power Spectral Analysis of Heart  Rate Variability in Healthy Young Women During the Normal Menstrual Cycle., Psychosomatic Medicine, 57(4), 331-335.
- Shetty S.B., Nayanatara A.K., Shetty B. and Pai S.R. (2011)., Comparison of cardiac autonomic activity and BMI in different phases of menstrual cycle using heart rate variability., International Journal of Basic Medical Science, 3(3), 100-105.
- Leicht A.S., Hirning D.A. and Allen G.D. (2003)., Heart Rate Variability And Endogenous Sex Hormones During Menstrual Cycle In Young Women., Experimental Physiology, 88(3), 441-446.
- Matsumoto T., Kimura T., Hayashi T., Moritani T. and Ushiroyama T. (2007)., Altered autonomic nervous system activity as a potential etiological factor of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder., Biopsychosocial Medicine, 1, 24.
- Tanaka M., Sato M., Umehara S. and Nishikawa T. (2003)., Influence of menstrual cycle on baroreflex control of heart rate: Comparison with male volunteers., American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 285(5), R1091-1097.
- Yildirir A., Kabakci G., Akgul E., Tokgozoglu L. and Oto A. (2001)., Effects of menstrual cycle on cardiac autonomic innervation as assessed by heart rate variability., Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol, 7(1), 60-63. PubMed PMID: 11844293.
- Guasti L., Grimoldi P., Mainardi L.T., Piantanida Eliana, Garganico Deborah, Diolisi Alessio, Zanotta Danilo, Bertolini Andrea, Ageno Walter, Grandi Anna M., Cerutti Sergio, Venco Achille and Petrozzino M.R. (1999)., Autonomic function andbaroreflexsensitivity during a normal ovulatory cycle in humans., Acta Cardiologica, 54(4), 209-213.
- Chatterjee Sumana, Aditya Subhrangsu and Tibarewala D.N. (2009)., A Comparative Study between Females of Pre-Pubertal and Reproductive age groups to explore how HPG-Axis affects the Autonomic Control over Cardiac Activity., Indian Journal of Biomechanics, 233-236.
- Bernardi F. and Genazzani A.R. (1999)., The brain: target and source for sex Steroid hormones., In: Women
- Eskin B.A., Snyder D.L., Roberts J. and Aloyo V.J. (2003)., Cardiac norepinephrine release: modulation by ovariectomyand estrogen 1., ExpBiol Med (Maywood), 228(2), 194-199.
- Mercuro G., Pitzalis L., Podda A., Zoncu S., Pilia I., Melis G.B. and Cherchi A. (1999)., Effects of acute administration of natural progesterone on peripheral vascular responsiveness in healthy postmenopausal women., Am J Cardiol, 84(2), 214-218.
- Bai Xiaopeng, Li Jingxiu, Zhou Lingqi and Li Xueqi (2009)., Influence of the menstrual cycle on nonlinear properties of heart rate variability in young women., American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 297(2), 765-774.
- Princi T., Parco S., Accardo A., Radillo O., De Seta F. and Guaschino S. (2005)., Parametric evaluation of heart rate variability during the menstrual cycle in young women., Biomed Sci Instrum, 41, 340-345.