6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Detection of Prostate Cancer using Tumor markers and Biopsy in outpatients in Kerbala city, Iraq

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences/College of Pharmacy/University of Kerbala, IRAQ
  • 2 Department of Immunology /Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital/Kerbala Health Directorate, Kerbala, IRAQ

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 1, Issue (7), Pages 17-21, August,28 (2013)


Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates vary worldwide. This led to the investigation the prostate specific antigen for detection prostate cancer in the serum of patients by using tumor markers and histopatological procedures. Prostate specific antigen levels of 410 ng/mL participated in a protocol for prostate cancer using Analytical immune assay AIA 360, and used histopathological procedure for prostate cancer diagnosis. One hundred and fifty Clinical symptoms (75 PSA,75 control) of prostate cancer were included mean and SD of PSA at ages (20-40,41-50,51-60,61-70,71-80,81-90) higher than mean and SD of control especially age group (71-80) was (9.183.56) high significant more than another age groups at (p 0.05) compare with control twenty two, twelve and ten patients were suffering from prostate expansion at age groups (71-80), (81-90), (61-70) respectively, testis surgery and CA prostate were (6,5) respectively at the same age groups, prostate inflammation was (7) at age group (71-80) more than another age groups. Adenocarcinoma, hyperplasia, benign, hemorrhagic, testicular mass, and hypoplasia were 20(26.66%), 25 (33.33%), 12(16%), 8(10.66%), 1(1.33%), 9(12%). The PSA using has led to overdiagnosis and resulting to dissolve controversy and histopathological tools to enhanced prostate diagnosis and help in early detection about prostate cancer at males that appointed physicians to set suitable drugs for patients, so early diagnosis by these techniques prevent the complications appearance at patients which led to mortality.


  1. Fletcher C.D.M., Tumors of the male genital tract, Diagnostic Histopathology of tumors, 3rd edition, Philadelphia, Elsevier, 755 (2007)
  2. Lew E. and Garfinkel L.A., Mortality at ages 75 and older in the cancer prevention study (CPSI), Cancer,40, 210 (1990)
  3. Wu S.L., Li N.C. and Xiao Y.X. et al. Natural history of benign prostate hyperplasia, Clin Med J (Engl), 119(24),2085-9 (2006)
  4. Roehrborn C.G., McConell J.D., Bonilla J., Rosenblatt S., Hudson P.B. and Malek G.H., et al. Serum prostate specific antigen is a strong predictor of future prostate growth in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, PROSCAR longterm efficacy and safety study, J Urol., 163, 1320 (2000)
  5. Greene K.L., Albertsen P.C. and Babaian R.J. et al., Prostate specific antigen best practice statement: update, J Urol., 182, 2232-2241 (2009)
  6. Routh J.C. and Leibovich B.C., Adenocarcinoma of the prostate: epidemiological trends, screening, diagnosis, and surgical management of localized disease, Mayo Clin Proc.,80(7), 899-907 (2005)
  7. Kolawole A.O., Feasible Cancer Control Strategies for Nigeria: Mini-Review, AJT M PH, 1(1), 1-10.8 (2011)
  8. Garnick M.B. and Fair W.R., Prostate cancer: emerging concepts, Part II, Ann Intern Med.,125(3), 205-12 (1996)
  9. Weinstein I.B., Santella R.M. and Perera F.P. Molecular biology and epidemiology of cancer, Cancer Prevention and Control (ed. Greenwald, P., Kramer, B.S. and Weed, D.L.), Marcel-Dekker, New York, 83110 (1995)
  10. Osamu OGAWA, Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer, JMAJ, 47(4), 186191 (2004)
  11. Wolff J.M., Borchers H., Efferts P.J., Habid F.K. and Jakse G., Free to total prostate-specific antigen serum concentrations in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia, Br J Urol.,78, 409-413 (1995)
  12. Kiernan J.A., Histological and Histochemical Methods: Theory and Practice, London A Hodder Arnold Publication (2001)
  13. Oesterling J.E., Jacobsen S.J. and Chute C.G., et al. Serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy men, Establishment of age-specific reference ranges, JAMA,270, 860-4 (1993)
  14. Mazhar D. and Waxman J., Prostate cancer, Postgrad Med J.,78, 590-595 (2002)
  15. Lotfi R., Assadsangabi M. Shirazi R., Jali A., Assadsangabi S.A., Nabavizadeh, Diagnostic Value of Prostate Specific Antigen and Its Density in Iranian Men with Prostate Cancer, IRCMJ,11(2), 170-175 (2009)
  16. Naslund M.J., Gilsenan A.W., Midkiff K.D. et al., Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate enlargement in the primary care setting, Int J Clinpract.,61(9), 1437-45 (2007)
  17. Howard D., Strickler and James J. Goedert, Sexual Behavior and Evidence for an Infectious Cause of Prostate Cancer, Epidemiologic Reviews,23(1), 144-151 (2001)
  18. Gholamreza Pourmand, Sepehr Salem, AbdolrasoulMehrsai, MehrzadLotfi, Mohammad Ali Amirzargar, Hamid Mazdak, Ali Roshani, AbdolrezaKheirollahi, EbrahimKalantar, NimaBaradaran, BabakSaboury, FarzadAllameh, Ali Karami, HamedAhmadi, YunesJahani, The Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: A Multicentric Case- Control Study in Iran, Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev., 8, 422-428 (2007)
  19. Partin A.W., Kattan M.W., Subong E.N., Walsh P.C., Wojno K.J., Oesterling J.E., Scardino P.T., Pearson J.D., Combination of prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage of localizedprostate cancer, A multiinstitutional update, JAMA,277, 1445-51 (1997)
  20. Talukder S.I., Roy M.K., Azam M.S., Huq M.H., Haque M.A., Saleh A.F., Histopathological Patterns of Prostate Specimens in Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Med Col J.,1(2), 29-32 (2008)