International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Study of the characteristics of a mortar formulated from a mixture of river sand and crushing sand

Author Affiliations

  • 1Laboratory of Research in Engineering Sciences, Engineers High National School of University of Lome, TOGO
  • 2Laboratory of Research in Engineering Sciences, Engineers High National School of University of Lome, TOGO
  • 3Laboratory of Research in Engineering Sciences, Engineers High National School of University of Lome, TOGO
  • 4Laboratory of Research in Engineering Sciences, Engineers High National School of University of Lome, TOGO

Res. J. Material Sci., Volume 9, Issue (1), Pages 7-10, February,16 (2021)


In Togo, quarry sands (silty sand) and river sands are the most used in the construction of structures, particularly for mortar manufacture. Crushing sands from rock crushing quarries are very little used because they contain enough fine elements. In this work, the characteristics of a mortar obtained by mixing river sand with crushing sand are studied. Identification tests were carried out on the mortar components which are river sand, crushing sand and cement. Then the river sand mass is varied in the mixture in proportions ranging from 0 to 100% and in steps of 25%. Tests of measurement of slump, density, porosity and flexural and compressive strengths at 28 days of age are carried out on each mixture. It appears that the characteristics of the mortar studied are improved by the addition of river sand. A mixture of 50% river sand and 50% crushed sand is the optimal mixture which makes it possible to have characteristics of the mixed mortar better than those of a mortar containing unmixed sand.


  1. Dupain R., R. Lanchon et J.C. Saint-Arroman (2004)., Granulats, sols, ciments et bétons: caractérisation des matériaux de génie civil par les essais de laboratoire., Ed. Casteilla, Paris, 235p, ISBN-10: 2713514711
  2. Festa J. and Dreux G. (1998)., Nouveau guide du béton et de ses constituants., France, Edition Eyrolles, 403 p.
  3. Nkengue C., MalandaN., Ganga G., Louzolo-Kimbembe P. and Mouengue G. (2019)., Influence of aggregate grain size on the formulation of sand concrete in the construction industry in Congo., Geomaterials, 9(4), 81-96. doi: 10. 4236/gm.2019.94007.
  4. Hamidi A, Alizadeh M and Soleimani S. (2009)., Effect of Particle Crushing on Shear Strength and Dilation Characteristics of Sand-Gravel Mixtures., International Journal of Civil Engineering, 7(1), 61-71.
  5. Sanjay Mundraa, Sindhib P.R., Vinay Chandwania, Ravindra Nagara and Vinay Agrawala (2016)., Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix., Perspectives in Science, 8, 345-347.
  6. Pathan MA, Maira MSM and Ahmed AJ (2020)., The Engineering Properties of Manufactured Sand with Rock Quarry Dust and Muck Material District Jamshoro Sindh Province Pakistan., Science Forest Journal of Environmental and Earth Science, 3(2), 1043.
  7. Çelik T. and Marar K. (1996)., Effects of crushed stone dust on some properties of concrete., Cement Concrete Research, 26(7), 1121-1130.
  8. Ilangovan R. (2000)., Studies on strength and behaviour of concrete by using quarry dust as fine aggregate proceedings of All India Seminar on Materials and Machines for Construction., New Age International, 99-102.
  9. M. Shahul Hameed, A.S.S. Sekar(2009).Properties of green concrete containing quarry rock dust and marble sludge powder as fine aggregateARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 4 (4), pp. 83-89, undefined, undefined
  10. Mohammed Abbou, Adrar, Abdelaziz Semcha and Fatiha Kazi-Aoua (2020)., Stabilization of compressed earth block clayey materials from Adrar (Algeria) by lime and crushed sand., Journal of building materials and structures, 7(1): 42-50. 44137
  11. Joel M. (2010)., Use of Crushed Granite Fine as Replacement to River Sand in Concrete Production., Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, 9, 85-96.
  12. European Standards N EN 197-1 (2012)., Cement - Part 1: Composition., Specifications and conformity criteria for common cements
  13. French Standards NF P18-400 (1981)., Concretes - Moulds for cylindrical and prismatic test specimens.,
  14. European Standards NF EN 12350-8 (2010)., Testing fresh concrete- Part 8: Self-compacting concrete-Slump-flow test.,
  15. European Standards NF EN 12350-6 (2012)., Testing fresh concrete - Part 6: Density.,
  16. French Standards NF P18-459 (2010)., Concrete - Testing hardened concrete - Testing porosity and density.,
  17. European Standards NF EN 12390-5 (2012)., Testing hardened concrete - Part 5: Flexural strength of test specimens.,
  18. European Standards NF EN 12390-3 (2019)., Testing hardened concrete - Part 3: compressive strength of test specimens.,
  19. Vivek R Das., Nagarjun Gowda B. S., Apoorva M (2020)., Comparative study on concrete mix with replacement of fine aggregate., International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 7(9), 1495-1498.