International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

An investigation of friendship quality development in Taiwanese and Vietnamese children

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Psychology, National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan and Center for research in Cognitive Sciences, National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan
  • 2Department of Psychology, National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan
  • 3Center for research in Cognitive Sciences, National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 8, Issue (4), Pages 11-21, October,14 (2019)


The present study attempted to investigate the differences in between friendship quality of children in Taiwan and Vietnam. 757 children aged 8-12 years-old participated, including 395 Taiwanese and 362 Vietnamese children. Results found significant differences on sex, age, country, and the interactions between sex and age, and age and country on the friendship quality. Girls were higher than boys, older children were higher than younger children, and Taiwanese children were higher than Vietnamese children. For the interaction, it was found older girls had better friendship quality than boys on the companionship and recreation and also intimate exchange. In addition, it was also found that for older children, Taiwanese children were higher than Vietnamese children on conflict and betrayal, validation and caring, and intimate exchange. Both younger and older Taiwanese children were higher than their counterparts of Vietnamese children on their scores of help and guidance. Finally, for companionship and recreation, Vietnamese younger children were higher than Taiwanese young children but the Vietnamese older children were lower than Taiwanese older children. Taken together, the differences on friendship quality in between of Taiwanese and Vietnamese children can be explained under a general trend in development as well as the cultural influences in their experience of friendship.


  1. Bagwell C.L., Molina B.S., Pelham Jr, W.E. and Hoza B. (2001)., Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and problems in peer relations: Predictions from childhood to adolescence., Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(11), 1285-1292.
  2. Araújo DeSousa D., Roller S.H., Welter Wendt G. and Lisboa C. (2014)., Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Friendship Quality Questionnaire in a community sample of children and early adolescents., Universitas Psychologica, 13(2), 423-431.
  3. Bukowski W.M., Motzoi C. and Meyer F. (2009)., Friendship as process, function, and outcome., In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski and B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups, New York: The Guilford Press, 217-231. ISBN: 978-1-59385-441-6
  4. Rose A.J. and Asher S.R. (2000)., Children′s friendships. In C. Hendrick and S. Hendrick (Eds.), Close relationships: A sourcebook., California: Sage Publications, 47-57. ISBN: 0-7619-1605-9
  5. Laursen B., Bukowski W. M., Aunola K. and Nurmi J.E. (2007)., Friendship moderates prospective associations between social isolation and adjustment problems in young children., Child development, 78(4), 1395-1404.
  6. Tam B.K. and Bond M.H. (2002)., Interpersonal behaviors and friendship in a Chinese culture., Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 5(1), 63-74.
  7. Marton I., Wiener J., Rogers M. and Moore C. (2015)., Friendship characteristics of children with ADHD., Journal of attention disorders, 19(10), 872-881.
  8. Geisthardt C.L., Brotherson M.J. and Cook C.C. (2002)., Friendships of children with disabilities in the home environment., Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37(3), 235-252.
  9. Kiesner J., Nicotra E. and Notari G. (2005)., Target specificity of subjective relationship measures: Understanding the determination of item variance., Social Development, 14(1), 109-135.
  10. Berndt T.J. (2002)., Friendship quality and social development., Current directions in psychological science, 11(1), 7-10.
  11. Asher S.R. and Parker J.G. (1989)., Significance of peer relationship problems in childhood., In B. H. Schneider el al. (eds.),Social competence in developmental perspective, Springer, Dordrecht, 5-23. ISBN: 978-94-010-7602-9
  12. Bukowski W.M., Hoza B. and Boivin M. (1994)., Measuring friendship quality during pre-and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale., Journal of social and Personal Relationships, 11(3), 471-484.
  13. Bollmer J.M., Milich R., Harris M.J. and Maras M.A. (2005)., A friend in need: The role of friendship quality as a protective factor in peer victimization and bullying., Journal of interpersonal violence, 20(6), 701-712.
  14. Hartup W.W. (1992)., Conflict and friendship relations., In C. U. Shantz and W. W. Hartup (Eds.), Cambridge studies in social and emotional development. Conflict in child and adolescent development New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 186-215. ISBN: 0-521-40416-9
  15. Schneider B.H., Fonzi A., Tani F. and Tomada G. (1997)., A Cross-Cultural Exploration of the Stability of Children, Social Development, 6(3), 322-339.
  16. Parker J.G. and Asher S.R. (1993)., Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction., Developmental psychology, 29(4), 611-621.
  17. Zarbatany L., Conley R. and Pepper S. (2004)., Personality and gender differences in friendship needs and experiences in preadolescence and young adulthood., International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(4), 299-310.
  18. Maccoby E.E. (1990)., Gender and relationships: A developmental account., American psychologist, 45(4), 513-520.
  19. Tomada G. and Schneider B.H. (1997)., Relational aggression, gender, and peer acceptance: Invariance across culture, stability over time, and concordance among informants., Developmental psychology, 33(4), 601-609.
  20. Walker S., Irving K. and Berthelsen D. (2002)., Gender influences on preschool children, The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(2), 197-209.
  21. Putallaz M., Hellstern L., Sheppard B.H., Grimes C.L. and Glodis K.A. (1995)., Conflict, social competence, and gender: Maternal and peer contexts., Early Education and Development, 6(4), 433-447.
  22. Walker S. (2005)., Gender differences in the relationship between young children, The Journal of genetic psychology, 166(3), 297-312.
  23. Sampson E.E. (1989)., The challenge of social change for psychology: Globalization and psychology, American Psychologist, 44(6), 914-921.
  24. Triandis H.C. (1989)., The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts., Psychological review, 96(3), 506-520.
  25. Markus H.R. and Kitayama S. (1991)., Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation., Psychological review, 98(2), 224-253.
  26. Oyserman D., Coon H.M. and Kemmelmeier M. (2002)., Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses., Psychological bulletin, 128(1), 3-72.
  27. Singelis T.M. (1994)., The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals., Personality and social psychology bulletin, 20(5), 580-591.
  28. Dion K.K., Pak A.W.P. and Dion K.L. (1990)., Stereotyping physical attractiveness: A sociocultural perspective., Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21(2), 158-179.
  29. Verkuyten M. and Masson K. (1996)., Culture and gender differences in the perception of friendship by adolescents., International Journal of Psychology, 31(5), 207-217.
  30. Argyle M. and Henderson M. (1984)., The rules of friendship., Journal of social and personal relationships, 1(2), 211-237.
  31. Argyle M., Henderson M. and Furnham A. (1985)., The rules of social relationships., British Journal of Social Psychology, 24(2), 125-139.
  32. Argyle M., Henderson M., Bond M., Iizuka Y. and Contarello A. (1986)., Cross-cultural variations in relationship rules., International Journal of Psychology, 21(1-4), 287-315.
  33. Williams B. (2006)., Lessons along the cultural spectrum., The Learning Professional, 27(4), 10-14.
  34. Bae Y.A. (2003)., Differences in friendship qualities of Korean and American college students., Illinois Wesleyan University, Honors Projects Paper 22. Retrieved from
  35. Choi S.-C., Kim U. and Choi S.-H. (1993)., Indigenous analysis of collective representations: A Korean perspective., In U. Kim and J. W. Berry (Eds.), Cross-cultural research and methodology series, Vol. 17. Indigenous psychologies: Research and experience in cultural context. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc, 193-210. ISBN: 9780803951419
  36. Benjamin W.J.J., Schneider B.H., Greenman P.S. and Hum M. (2001)., Conflict and childhood friendship in Taiwan and Canada., Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 33(3), 203-211.
  37. French D.C., Pidada S. and Victor A. (2005)., Friendships of Indonesian and United States youth., International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(4), 304-313.
  38. Farver J.A.M. and Wimbarti S. (1995)., Indonesian children, Child Development, 66(5), 1493-1503.
  39. Magnis-Suseno F. (1997)., Javanese ethics and world-view: The Javanese idea of the good life., Jakarta, Indonesia: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  40. Lin Y.W. and Tsai M.L. (1996)., Culture and the kindergarten curriculum in Taiwan., Early Child Development and Care, 123(1), 157-165.
  41. Wilson R.W. (1970)., Learning to be Chinese: The political socialization of children in Taiwan., Cambridge, MA: MITPress.
  42. Wilson R.W. (1981)., Conformity and deviance regarding moral rules in Chinese society: A socialization perspective., In A. Kleinman and T.Y. Lin (Eds.), Normal andabnormal behavior in Chinese culture. Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 117-136. ISBN: 978-90-481-8359-3
  43. Stigler J.W., Smith S. and Mao L.W. (1985)., The self-perception of competence by Chinese children., Child development, 56(5), 1259-1270.
  44. Coombs L.C. and Sun T.H. (1981)., Familial values in a developing society: A decade of change in Taiwan., Social Forces, 59(4), 1229-1255.
  45. Lee M.L. and Sun T.H. (1995)., The family and demography in contemporary Taiwan., Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 26(1), 101-115.
  46. Nunan D. (2003)., The impact of English as a global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific Region., TESOL quarterly, 37(4), 589-613.
  47. von Salisch M. (2001)., Children′s emotional development: Challenges in their relationships to parents, peers, and friends., International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(4), 310-319.
  48. Sullivan H.S. (1953)., The interpersonal theory of psychiatry., Journal of consulting psychology, 17(5), 401.
  49. Newcomb A.F. and Bagwell C.L. (1995)., Children, Psychological bulletin, 117(2), 306-347.
  50. McDougall P. and Hymel S. (2007)., Same-gender versus cross-gender friendship conceptions: Similar or different?., Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53, 347-380.
  51. Berndt T.J. and Hoyle S.G. (1985)., Stability and change in childhood and adolescent friendships., Developmental psychology, 21(6), 1007-1015.
  52. Berndt T.J., Hawkins J.A. and Hoyle S.G. (1986)., Changes in friendship during a school year: Effects on children, Child Development, 57, 1284-1297.
  53. Hallinan M.T. and Tuma N.B. (1978)., Classroom effects on change in children, Sociology of Education, 51, 270-282.
  54. Rose A.J. and Rudolph K.D. (2006)., A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys., Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 98-131.
  55. Claes M. (2003)., L′univers social des adolescents. Montreal: Les Presses del′Universite de Montreal., ISBN: 2-7606-1807-2
  56. Rose A.J. (2007)., Structure, content, and socioemotional correlates of girls, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53, 489-506.
  57. Eder D. and Hallinan M.T. (1978)., Sex differences in children, American Sociological Review, 43, 237-250.
  58. Andrich D. and Styles I. (1994)., Psychometric evidence of intellectual growth spurts in early adolescence., The Journal of Early Adolescence, 14(3), 328-344.
  59. Colom R. and Lynn R. (2004)., Testing the developmental theory of sex differences in intelligence on 12-18 year olds., Personality and individual differences, 36(1), 75-82.
  60. Porteous M.A. (1985)., Developmental aspects of adolescent problem disclosure in England and Ireland., Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26(3), 465-478.
  61. Silberman M.A. and Snarey J. (1993)., Gender differences in moral development during early adolescence: The contribution of sex-related variations in maturation., Current Psychology, 12(2), 163-171.
  62. Epstein J.L. (1989)., The selection of friends: Changes across the grades and in different school environments., In T. J. Berndt and G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Wiley series on personality processes. Peer relationships in child development. Oxford, England: John Wiley and Sons, 158-187. ISBN-0-471-85131-0
  63. Kiesner J., Poulin F. and Nicotra E. (2003)., Peer relations across contexts: Individual‐network homophily and network inclusion in and after school., Child development, 74(5), 1328-1343.