9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

The influence of Middle East crisis on the flow of tourists to Jordan

Author Affiliations

  • 1School of Tourism, Hospitality and Environmental Management, University Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia
  • 2School of Tourism, Hospitality and Environmental Management, University Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia
  • 3School of Tourism, Hospitality and Environmental Management, University Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 7, Issue (11), Pages 1-7, November,14 (2018)

Abstract

Despite the Middle East is considered as a conflict-ridden region, relatively some major tourism destination such as Jordan is safe, however, these destinations' geographic location has resulted in tourists' misperceptions and had a negative effect on tourism throughout the Middle East. This study aimed to uncover the challenges of decreased the flow of tourists to the Jordan to restore a positive image after the crisis following the Arab Spring uprisings. Literature analysis method was applied to review previous literature on perceived risks in the Middle East. Results of the analysis revealed the issues that influence tourists' perceived risk toward the region and Jordan particularly were geographical ignorance of safe destinations, a biased coverage of the media, different culture influence personal characteristics concerning freedom, and weakness of previous experiences. Findings further revealed that studies regarding during-traveling sampling of international tourists in the Middle East are limited.

References

  1. Garg A. (2015)., Travel risks vs tourist decision making: a tourist perspective., International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems, 8(1), 1-9.
  2. Jensen S. and Svendsen G.T. (2016)., Social Trust, Safety and the Choice of Tourist Destination., Business and Management Horizons, 4(1), 1-9.
  3. Chew E. and Jahari S.A. (2014)., Destination image as a mediator between perceived risks and revisit intention: A case of post-disaster Japan., Tourism Management, 40, 382-393.
  4. Sohn H.K. and Yoon Y.S. (2016)., Verification of Destination Attachment and Moderating Effects in the Relationship between the Perception of and Satisfaction with Tourism Destinations: A Focus on Japanese Tourists., Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 33(5), 757-769.
  5. Mitchell V.W. and Vassos V. (1998)., Perceived risk and risk reduction in holiday purchases: A cross-cultural and gender analysis., Journal of Euro marketing, 6(3), 47-79.
  6. Law R. (2006)., The perceived impact of risks on travel decisions., International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(4), 289-300.
  7. Sharifpour M., Walters G. and Ritchie B.W. (2014)., Risk perception, prior knowledge, and willingness to travel: Investigating the Australian tourist market's risk perceptions towards the Middle East., Journal of Vacation Marketing, 20(2), 111-123.
  8. Deng R. and Ritchie B.W. (2016)., International university students' travel risk perceptions: an exploratory study., Current Issues in Tourism, 1-22.
  9. Boakye K.A. (2010)., Studying tourists' suitability as crime targets., Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 727-743.
  10. Adam I. (2015)., Backpackers, Tourism Management, 49, 99-108.
  11. Hylton J. (2013)., Middle East Peacekeeping Operations after Peace Accords on the Syria and Lebanon Tracks., Journal of International Peacekeeping, 17(1-2), 1-45. DOI: 10.1163/18754112-1702001.
  12. Taylor P.A. (2006)., Getting them to forgive and forget: Cognitive based marketing responses to terrorist acts., International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(3), 171-183.
  13. Avraham E. (2013)., Crisis communication, image restoration, and battling stereotypes of terror and wars: Media strategies for attracting tourism to Middle Eastern countries., American Behavioral Scientist, 57(9), 1350-1367.
  14. Avraham E. and Ketter E. (2016)., Tourism Marketing for Developing Countries, , Palgrave Macmillan, London, UK. 1-193. ISBN: 978-1-137-34215-7.
  15. Avraham E. (2016)., Destination marketing and image repair during tourism crises: The case of Egypt., Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 28(9), 41-48.
  16. Beck M., Jung D. and Seeberg P. (2014)., The Levant in Transformation the Syrian Crisis in a Regional Perspective., In International Conference in University of Southern Denmark, 23rd-24th of May, 1-4.
  17. Martin N. (2015)., Security and the Turkey-EU Accession Process, , Palgrave Macmillan, London, UK. 1-268. ISBN: 978-1-137-45003-6.
  18. Albu C.E. (2016)., Tourism and Terrorism: A Worldwide Perspective., CES Working Papers, 1(1), 1-19.
  19. Khajuria S. and Khanna S. (2014)., Tourism risks and crimes at pilgrimage destinations-a case study of Shri Mata Vaishno Devi., International Journal of Event Management Research, 8(1), 77-93.
  20. UNWTO (2008)., International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics., 2008. https://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/ Seriesm/SeriesM_83rev1e.pdf (Accessed 2018-4-24).
  21. Yang E.C.L., Khoo-Lattimore C. and Arcodia C. (2017)., A systematic literature review of risk and gender research in tourism., Tourism Management, 58(1), 89-100.
  22. Yang C.L. and Nair V. (2014)., Risk perception study in tourism: Are we really measuring perceived risk?, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144(1), 322-327.
  23. Baker D.M.A. (2015)., Tourism and Terrorism: Terrorists Threats to Commercial Aviation Safety and Security., International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism and Hospitality, 1(12), 1-18.
  24. Rodgers L., Qurashi S. and Connor S. (2015)., 7 July London bombings: What happened that day., BBC News, 1-4. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-33253598.
  25. Smith S. (2005)., Bus Blast Kills 5 in Turkey. CBS News, 1-3., Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/bus-blast-kills-5-in-turkey/.
  26. Al Goodman A. and Vause J. (2005)., Bombs kill scores in Egyptian resort town., CNN News, 1-4. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/07/23/egypt.explosions/.
  27. Almasy S. and Basil Y. (2014),, Tourist bus explosion in Egypt kills 4, wounds 14., CNN News, pp.1-3. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2014/02/16/world/meast/egypt-explosion/index.html.
  28. Korstanje M. (2009)., Re-visiting risk perception theory in the context of travel., E-Review of Tourism Research, 7(4), 68-81.
  29. Adeloye D. and Brown L. (2018)., Terrorism and domestic tourist risk perceptions., Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 16(3), 217-233.
  30. Laws E., Prideaux B. and Chon K.S. (2007)., Crisis management in tourism., Cabi, DC, USA, 1-389.
  31. Dinnie K. (2011)., City Branding, , Palgrave Macmillan, London, UK. 1-239. ISBN: 978-0-230-29479-0.
  32. Gurtner Y. (2016)., Returning to paradise: Investigating issues of tourism crisis and disaster recovery on the island of Bali., Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 28(1), 11-19.
  33. Morakabati Y. (2013)., Tourism in the Middle East: Conflicts, crises and economic diversification, some critical issues., International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(4), 375-387.
  34. Zamani H. and Henderson J.C. (2010)., Islamic tourism and managing tourism development in Islamic societies: the cases of Iran and Saudi Arabia., International journal of tourism research, 12(1), 79-89.
  35. Morakabati Y., Beavis J. and Fletcher J. (2014)., Planning for a Qatar without oil: Tourism and economic diversification, a battle of perceptions., Tourism Planning and Development, 11(4), 415-434.
  36. Avraham E. (2015)., Destination image repair during crisis: Attracting tourism during the Arab Spring uprisings., Tourism Management, 47(1), 224-232.
  37. Longman N. (2017)., Families of Tunisia Attack Victims to Sue Britain, Independent News, 1-3. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/tunisia-inquests-massacre-tui-britain-holiday-company-sousse-a7604616.html.
  38. Osborne S. (2017)., Egypt church bombings: At least 44 killed in two explosions targeting Christians on Palm Sunday, Independent News, 1-4., Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/church-bombing-cairo-egypt-tanta-kills-dead-wounded-injured-latest-a7674761.html
  39. MoTA (2016)., Tourism Statistical Newsletter., http://www.tourism.jo/Contents/StatisticsAr.aspx (Accessed 2018-6-12).
  40. Mansfeld Y., Jonas A. and Cahaner L. (2016)., Between tourists' faith and perceptions of travel risk: An exploratory study of the Israeli Haredi community., Journal of travel research, 55(3), 395-413.
  41. Farajat S.A., Liu B. and Pennington-Gray L. (2017)., Addressing travel writers' role as risk brokers: the case of Jordan., Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 9(1), 23-39.
  42. Liu B., Schroeder A., Pennington-Gray L. and Farajat S.A. (2016)., Source market perceptions: How risky is Jordan to travel to?, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 5(4), 294-304.
  43. Morakabati Y., Fletcher J. and Prideaux B. (2012)., Tourism development in a difficult environment: a study of consumer attitudes, travel risk perceptions and the termination of demand., Tourism Economics, 18(5), 953-969.
  44. Schroeder A., Yilmaz S., Liu B., Pennington-Gray L. and Farajat S.A.D. (2015)., Applying the risk-as-feelings hypothesis to tourism: An examination of the influence of perceived comfort and perceived safety on interest in visiting different MENA region destinations., 3nd World Research Summit for Tourism and Hospitality, Orlando, FL, USA, 15-19 December, 15-19.
  45. Jones R.V. (2011)., Motivations to cruise: An itinerary and cruise experience study., Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 18(1), 30-40.
  46. Sharifpour M., Walters G., Ritchie B.W. and Winter C. (2014)., Investigating the role of prior knowledge in tourist decision making: A structural equation model of risk perceptions and information search., Journal of Travel Research, 53(3), 307-322.
  47. Buda D.M. (2015)., The death drive in tourism studies., Annals of Tourism Research, 50(1), 39-51.
  48. Surette R. (1992)., Media, Crime and Criminal Justice, Images and Realities., Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 1-368. ISBN: 9781285459059.
  49. Beeton S., Bowen H.E. and Santos C.A. (2006)., Quality tourism experiences, , Routledge, Abingdon, UK, 1-245. ISBN: 9780750678117.