International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Factors influencing maternal health indicators among tribal population in Maharashtra (India) with special focus on five high priority districts

Author Affiliations

  • 1National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai-400012, Maharashtra, India
  • 2National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai-400012, Maharashtra, India
  • 3National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai-400012, Maharashtra, India

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 6, Issue (5), Pages 20-29, May,14 (2017)


Although National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has been ushering the public health scenario of India, five high priority districts (HPDs) which are tribal in nature in Maharashtra show poor composite index in terms of maternal health indicators. To find out the determinants influencing maternal health indicators among tribal population in five HPDs, various secondary data sources on the five HPDs in Maharashtra were reviewed. The available data suggest that six levels of determinants such as individual characteristics, family structure, community profile, availability, and accessibility of health infrastructure and facilities, district profile, and the governance issues, are influencing the maternal health Indicators. Coordinated efforts are required for developing resources and agencies for the empowerment of this population in the long run. Tailor-made programmes to influence the health seeking behaviour of tribal mothers will play an important role and will bring about improvement in the maternal health indicators in these districts.


  1. World Health Organization (2017)., Maternal health., Accessed 19/01/2017.
  2. Commission for Social Determinants of Health (2017)., Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health., Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Accessed 22/01/2017.
  3. MHFW (2017)., Ministry of Health and Family Welfare., Standard Reports. frmstandard_reports.aspx. Accessed 19/02/2017
  4. MHFW (2016)., Ministry of Health and Family Welfare., List of High Priority Districts (HPDs) in the country. Accessed 30/10/2016.
  5. IIPS (2016)., International Institute of Population Science., State Fact Sheet – Maharashtra. /nfhs/pdf/NFHS4/Maharashtra.pdf. Accessed 02/11/2016.
  6. World Health Organization (2017)., Social determinants approach to maternal deaths., maternal_child_adolescent/epidemiology/maternal-death-surveillance/case-studies/india-social-determinants/en/. Accessed 02/01/2017.
  7. Ministry of Rural Development (2016)., State wise District Caste Profile Report-Maharashtra.,
  8. Registrar General of India (2016)., District Wise Scheduled Tribe Population – Maharashtra., Accessed 01/11/2016.
  9. Registrar General of India (2017)., Maharashtra Data Highlights: The Scheduled Tribes-Census of India 2001., Accessed 08/01/2017.
  10. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (2017)., District Level Household and facility Survey 4., 2FDLHS4%2FState%20and%20District%20Factsheets %2FMaharasthra&FolderCTID=0x012000742F17DFC64D5E42B681AB0972048759&View={F8D23EC0-C74A-41C3-B676-5B68BDE5007D}. Accessed 02/02/2017.
  11. International Institute of Population Science (2016)., Key Findings from NFHS-4 – Maharashtra., NFHS/MH.shtml. Accessed 02/12/2016.
  12. Registrar General of India (2016)., ST-9 Population Attending Educational Institutions By Age, Sex And Type Of Educational Institution (For Each Tribe Separately) – 2011., Accessed 02/11/2016.
  13. Birdi T.J., Joshi S., Kotian S. and Shah S. (2014)., Possible Causes of Malnutrition in Melghat, a Tribal Region of Maharashtra, India., Glob J Health Sci., 6(5), 164-173. DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v6n5p164.
  14. Shukla A. (2016)., Dimensions of Tribal Health in Sahayadri Region: Assessment and Administration of Health in Tribal Communities living near Chas Kaman Dam., Accessed 01/11/2016.
  15. Boga D. (2015)., Barefoot auditors ensure health for tribal mothers., India Together (E-news magazine). Accessed on 01/09/2016.
  16. Valvi D.N. (2016)., A Study of the Impact of Welfare Measures on Tribal Development in Nandurbar and Dhule districts of Maharastra., Lakshmi Publications, Solapur, 120, ISBN: 1329381904.
  17. Agriculture Census Division, DAC (2016)., Number and area of holding by size class - agricultural census, 2010-11., Accessed on 29/08/2016.
  18. Murkute S.R. (1990)., Socio-cultural Study of Scheduled Tribes: The Pardhans of Maharashtra., Concept publications, New Delhi, 2, 106, ISBN: 8170222621.
  19. Tribhuwan R.D. (2004)., Health of Primitive Tribes., Discovery publishing house, New Delhi, 82, ISBN 10: 8171419038.
  20. Mann K. (1996)., Tribal women on the threshold of twenty-first century., MD publications, New Delhi, 72-73, ISBN: 8185880883.
  21. Bhanu B.V. (2004)., People of India: Maharashtra part two, volume xxx., Anthropological Survey of India Kolkota, x-2130, SBN 10: 8179911004.
  22. Nerkar S.S., Tamhankar A.J., Johansson E. and Lundborg C.S. (2016)., Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India., Int J Environ Res Public Health, 13(3), 285. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13030285.
  23. Alkire Sabina, Meinzen-Dick Ruth, Peterman Amber, Quisumbing Agnes, Seymour Greg and Vaz Ana (2013)., The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index., IFPRI Discussion Paper 1240. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute. Accessed 05/02/2017.
  24. Juhos A. (2013)., Missing women in Maharashtra – Reasons for excess female mortality in adulthood., Conference proceeding book from International Research Universities Network and Catholic Universities Partnership- Graduate Students’ Conference. Piliscsaba, Hungary. 29th -31st August. 107-112.
  25. Mukherjee M.B., Colah R.B., Martinet S. and Ghosh K. (2015)., Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among tribal populations of India - Country scenario., Indian J Med Res., 141(5), 516-520. DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.159499.
  26. Rao V.R. and Gorakshakar A.C. (1990)., Sickle cell hemoglobin, beta-thalassemia and G6PD deficiency in tribes of Maharashtra, India., Gene Geogr., 4(3), 131-134.
  27. Boulet SL, Okoroh EM, Azonobi I, Grant A. and Hooper W.C. (2013)., Sickle Cell Disease in Pregnancy: Maternal Complications in a Medicaid-Enrolled Population., Matern Child Health J., 17(2), 200-207. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-012-1216-3.
  28. James A.H. (2014)., Sickle cell disease in pregnancy., Contemporary OB/GYN (E-Newsletter) Accessed 02/03/2017.
  29. Sonowal C.J. (2010)., Factors affecting the nutritional health of tribal children., Ethno Med., 4(1), 21-36.
  30. Bang A.T., Bang R.A., Baitule S., Deshmukh M. and Reddy M.H. (2001)., Burden of Morbidities and the Unmet Need for Health Care in Rural Neonates - A Prospective Observational Study in Gadchiroli, India., Indian Paediatrics, 38(9), 952-966.
  31. Training and Research Institute (2007)., Health Care of Tribal Women: A cross-cultural Tribal Study., Training and Research Institute, Pune, 24-25, 53-54, 84-85, 91.
  32. Jungari S. and Paswan B. (2016)., Newborn care practices among the indigenous population of Maharashtra, India: A mix method approach., Conference proceedings book of ICRH Conference, Mumbai, India, Feb. 28-April, 2, 51-65.
  33. Tribal Training and Research Institute (1995)., An Evaluation Study of Health and Nutritional Beliefs, Practices, & Facilities among the Tribals of Dharni and Chikhaldara Tehsils, Pune. Maharashtra., Tribal Training and Research Institute, Pune, 91-92.
  34. Jain D.L., Baheti A.M., Jain S.R. and Khandelwal K.R. (2010)., Use of medicinal plants among tribes in Satpuda region of Dhule and Jalgaon Districts of Maharashtra-An ethno-botanical study., Indian Journal of tradiotional Knowledge, 9(1), 152-157.
  35. Pawar S. and Patil D.A. (2004)., Observations on folkloric medicinal plants of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra., Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 3(4), 437-441.
  36. Ministry of Rural Development (2016)., Deprived ST Households – Maharashtra - SECC 2011., Accessed 29/08/2016.
  37. Kulkarni D. (2015)., Maharashtra government aims to lower maternal mortality ratio in tribal Maharashtra., Daily News Analysis (online). /india/report-maharashtra-government-aims-to-lower-maternal-mortality-ratio-in-tribal-maharashtra-2057990. accessed 18 Aug 2016.
  38. YASHADA (2016)., Maharashtra Human Development Report 2012: Towards Inclusive Human Development., State%20Human%20Development%20Report%202012.pdf. Accessed 02 Nov 2016.
  39. Ministry of Tribal Affairs (2016)., Statistical Profile of Scheduled Tribes in India 2013., WriteReadData/userfiles/file/Statistics/StatisticalProfileofSTs2013.pdf. Accessed 05/10/2016.
  40. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (2017)., Rural Health Statistics 2015., /Pages/RHS2015.aspx?RootFolder=%2FRURAL%20HEALTH%20STATISTICS%2F%28A%29RHS%20-%202015 &FolderCTID=&View={C50BC181-07BB-4F78-BE6F-FCE916B64253}
  41. Registrar General of India (2017)., District Census Handbook – Maharashtra – Census 2011., http://www. Accessed 05/01/2017.
  42. Ministry of Panchayati Raj (2016)., Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme Guidelines., http://www. Accessed 18/08/2016.
  43. Mishra L. (2016)., Pharma baron helps cure Dhule’s drought woes., The Hindu (online). http://www.thehindu. com/news/national/pharma-baron-helps-cure-dhules-drought- woes/article8721391.ece. Accessed on 29/08/2016.
  44. Registrar General of India (2016)., District Census Handbook – Gadchiroli., 2011census/dchb/2712_PART_B_DCHB_GADCHIROLI.pdf. Accessed 29/08/2016.
  45. Panigrahi D. (2016)., Development hubs to give Gadchiroli much-needed boost., Hindustantimes (online). -to-give-gadchiroli-much-needed-boost/story-cf2yL32QnMHtny61MjOpkM.html. Accessed 29/08/2016.
  46. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (2016)., Monitoring and Evaluation of Programme Implementation Plan report, 2013-14., PeriodicReport.aspx?Root Folder=%2 FPart% 20B%20Demographic %20and% 20Vital%20Indicators%2FPIP%20Monitoring%20of%20various%20districts%20during%20201314%2FDistricts%20PIP%20Rep ort%20201314%2FMaharashtra&FolderCTID=0x012000F14E657A4E28DE48BA36CCAF7331E92D&View={15AC35C6-AEC6-4336-AC516F9CE3A31418}. Accessed 30/10/2016.
  47. Duggal R. (2016)., Maharashtra Budget 2015-16: Continued Abject Neglect of the Social Sectors., Accessed 30/10/2016.
  48. Barnagarwala T. (2016)., Fadnavis’ report card: More state funds needed for health programmes., Indian Express (online). india/ india-news-india/maharashtra-fadnavis-report-card-more-state-funds-needed-for-health-programmes-3727670/. Accessed 02/11/2016.
  49. Krishna V. (2016)., The Maharashtra nutrition mission., _vandana_ krishna.htm. Accessed 31/10/2016.
  50. Srivastava K. (2016)., Launched at one year of Fadnavis govt, Abdul Kalam Amrut Ahar Yojna remains largely on paper., Daily News Analysis (online). http://www. Accessed 22 Aug 2016.
  51. Doke P.P., Gawande U.H., Gadgi M. and Deshpande S.R. (2015)., Evaluation of Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) in Maharashtra, India: Important Lessons for Implementation., International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health, 5(2), 141-155. DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/ 2015/13800
  52. Murray C.J., Kulkarni S.C., Michaud C., Tomijima N., Bulzacchelli M.T., Iandiorio T.J. and Ezzati M. (2006)., Eight Americas: investigating mortality disparities across races, counties, and race-counties in the United States., PLoS Med., 3(9), e260. journal.pmed.0030545
  53. Farmer P. (2004)., Pathologies of power: Health, human rights, and the new war on the poor., University of California Press, Berkeley, 1-420. ISBN-10: 0520243269.
  54. Wallerstein N. (2006)., What is the evidence on effectiveness of empowerment to improve health?., WHO, Copenhagen, 1-37. data/assets/pdf_file/0010/74656/E88086.pdf. Accessed 08/02/2017.
  55. Hanumappa S. and Prashanth N.S. (2011)., Good governance in health care: The Karnataka experience., The Lancet, 377(9768), 790-792. 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62041-7
  56. Hurt L.S., Ronsmans C. and Saha S. (2004)., Effects of education and other socioeconomic factors on middle age mortality in rural Bangladesh., J. Epidemiol. Community Health, 58(4), 315-320. DOI: 10.1136/jech.2003.007351
  57. Erikson R. (2001)., Why do graduates live longer?., In: Cradle to grave: Life-course change in modern Sweden. Jonsson JO, and Mills C (eds). Sociology Press Durham, 211-227. ISBN: 1903457033.
  58. Donkin A., Goldblatt P. and Lynch K. (2002)., Inequalities in life expectancy by social class 1972–1999., Health Stat. Q., 15, 5-15.
  59. Plavinski S.L., Plavinskaya S.I. and Klimov A.N. (2003)., Social factors and increase in mortality in Russia in the 1990s: Prospective cohort study., BMJ, 326(7401), 1240-1242. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.326.7401.1240
  60. Marmot M.G. and Shipley M.J. (1996)., Do socioeconomic differences in mortality persist after retirement? 25 year follow up of civil servants from the first Whitehall study., BMJ, 313(7066), 1177-1180. .
  61. Lynch J.W., Davey-Smith G., Kaplan G.A. and House J.S. (2000)., Income inequality and mortality: Importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions., BMJ, 320(7243), 1200-1204. DOI:
  62. Marmot M. and Wilkinson R.G. (2001)., Psychosocial and material pathways in the relation between income and health: A response to Lynch et al., BMJ, 322(7296), 1233-1236.
  63. Gwatkin D., Johnson K., Wagstaff A., Rutstein S., Suliman E. and Amouzou A. (2007)., Socioeconomic differences in health, nutrition, and population-45 countries., Washington. poverty/health/data/statusind.htm. Accessed 02/11/2016.
  64. Sen A. (2003)., Missing women--revisited: reduction in female mortality has been counterbalanced by sex selective abortions., BMJ, 327(7427), 1297-1299. 10.1136/bmj.327.7427.1297
  65. Karasek R. and Theorell T. (1992)., Healthy work: Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life., Basic Books, New York, 1-381. ISBN: 0465028977.
  66. Marmot M.G., Bosma H., Hemingway H., Brunner E. and Stansfeld S. (1997)., Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence., Lancet, 350(9073), 235-239. 10.1016/S0140-6736(97)04244-X.
  67. Pikhart H., Bobak M., Pajak A., Malyutina S., Kubinova R., Topor R., Sebakova H., Nikitin Y. and Marmot M. (2004)., Psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe., Soc. Sci. Med., 58(8), 1475-1482.
  68. Stafford M., Bartley M., Wilkinson R., Sacker A., Marmot M., Boreham R. and Thomas R. (2003)., Measuring the social environment: Social cohesion and material deprivation in English and Scottish neighbourhoods., Environ. Planning A., 35(8), 1459-1475. 10.1068/a35257.
  69. Brunner E.J., Davey S.G., Marmot M., Canner R., Beksinska M. and O, Childhood social circumstances and psychosocial and behavioural factors as determinants of plasma fibrinogen., Lancet, 347(9007), 1008-1013. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)90147-6
  70. Szreter S. and Woolcock M. (2004)., Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health., Int. J. Epidemiol., 33(4), 650-667. DOI:
  71. Brunner E., Juneja M. and Marmot M. (1998)., Abdominal obesity and disease are linked to social position., BMJ, 316(7127), 308-309. 10.1136/bmj.316.7127.308a.
  72. Academy of Medical Sciences (2004)., Calling time: The nation’s drinking as a major health issue., AMS, London, 1-42. ISBN: 1-903401-06-2.
  73. Subramanian S.V., Smith G.D. and Subramanyam M. (2006)., Indigenous health and socioeconomic status in India., PLoS Med., 3(10), e421. journal.pmed.0030421.
  74. Hoff K. and Pandey P. (2004)., Belief systems and durable inequities: An experimental investigation of Indian caste., World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. Report No. 3351. World Bank, Washington DC, 1-44. Accessed 06/01/2017.
  75. Caldwell J.C. (1993)., Health transition: The cultural, social and behavioural determinants of health in the Third World., Social Science & Medicine, 36(2), 125-135.
  76. Narayan R. (2011)., Universal health care in India: Missing core determinants., The Lancet, 377(9769), 883-885.
  77. Grover A. and Citro B. (2011)., India: Access to affordable drugs and the right to health., The Lancet, 377(9770), 976-977.