7th International Science Congress (ISC-2017).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Improving health through behavior change in water sanitation and hygiene

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Rural Social Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • 2Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Rural Social Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • 3Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Rural Social Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • 4Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Rural Social Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 6, Issue (11), Pages 22-29, November,14 (2017)

Abstract

The current research study entitled an analysis of community satisfaction and Behavior change in WASH Program with hygiene and sanitation in rural district Peshawar. A total of 359 respondents’ has been proportionally allocated to sub village in selected Union counsel, and then simple random sampling techniques were used. Data collection was held on a 3 level Likert scale interview schedule cover all variables of the study. Chi square was used for testing the level of association between study variable. Mentioning household nature of toilette facility (p=0.000), Toilette facility using by more households instead of one family (p=0.000), the kids stool regularly disposed, mention place (p=0.000), mention the place, where normally adults of a HH regularly go for defecation (p=0.000), is Toilet helpful towards bringing improvements in life standard as well as seclusion (p=0.000), sort of drainage system from HH toilette (p<0.022), personal hygiene i.e. cutting nail, teeth cleaning, taking bath etc. (p=0.000). Correspondingly, the findings of the research study are that mass communities had high level of satisfaction with regards to the initiation, deliverance and execution of the initiated project in the targeted area. Mechanism of strong follow ups maximizes involvement of community and interventions of public sector initiate such programs, to promote competitive environment for government as well as other implementing agencies were the recommendations in the light of present research study.

References

  1. WHO/UNICEF (2014)., Progress on drinking water and sanitation: 2014 update., World Health Organization.
  2. Evans Barbara (2005)., Securing the sanitation.The compelling case to address the crisis., Stockholm, Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). 48.
  3. Reed R.A., Godfrey S., Kayaga S., Reed B., Rouse J., Fisher J. and Odhiambo F. (2013)., Technical notes on drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies.,
  4. Shuval H., Tilden R., Perry B. and Grosse R. (1981)., Effect of investments in water supply and sanitation on health status. a threshold-saturation theory., Bulletin World Health Organization, 59(2), 243-248.
  5. WHO/UNICEF Joint Water Supply, and Sanitation Monitoring Programme (2014)., Progress on drinking water and sanitation: 2014 update., World Health Organization.
  6. Touré B., Faye B., Kane A.W., Lo C.M., Niang B., and Boucher Y. (2011)., Analysis of reasons for extraction of endodontically treated teeth: a prospective study., Journal of endodontics, 37(11), 1512-1515.
  7. Moizuddin M., Bandhakavi V. and Mundey K. (2010)., Sleep Hygiene Recommendations in Primary Care Clinics: A Chart Review Study at Milwaukee VAMC., CHEST Journal, 138(4_MeetingAbstracts), 640A-640A.
  8. Hunter P.R., MacDonald A.M. and Carter R.C. (2010)., Water Supply and Health., PLoS, Med., 7(11), e1000361. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000361
  9. Curtis V. and Cairncross S. (2003)., Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review., The Lancet infectious diseases, 3(5), 275-281.
  10. Edward Miguel and Michael Kremer (2004)., Identifying impacts on education and health in the presence of treatment externalities., Econometrica, 72(1), 159-217.
  11. Clasen T., Bartram J., Colford J., Luby S., Quick R. and Sobsey M. (2009)., Comment on household water treatment in poor populations. Is there enough evidence for scaling up now., Environ.Technol. Sci., 43(14), 5542-5544.
  12. Wilson B.H., Wilson J.T., Kampbell D.H., Bledsoe B.E. and Armstrong J.M. (1994)., Traverse City: Geochemistry and intrinsic bioremediation of BTX compounds., Symposium on Natural Attenuation of Ground Water, DIANE Publishing, 80.
  13. Jenkins M. and Scott B. (2007)., Behavioural Indicators of Household Decision-Making and Demand for Sanitation and Potential Gains from Sanitation Marketing in Ghana., Social Science and Medicine, 64, 2427-2442.
  14. Adinma Echendu Dolly and Adinma J.I.B. (2008)., Perceptions and practices on menstruation amongst Nigerian secondary school girls., African Journal of Reproductive Health, 12(1), 74-83.
  15. WHO (2009)., why children are still dying and what can be done., Diarrhoea.
  16. Ellis T.J. and Levy Y. (2009)., Towards a Guide for Novice Researchers on Research Methodology: Review and Proposed Methods., Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 6.
  17. Kothari C.R. (2004)., Research methodology: Methods and techniques., New Age International.
  18. McCall J.M. (1975)., Liquid-lipquid partition coefficients by high-pressure liquid chromatography., Journal of medicinal chemistry, 18(6), 549-552.
  19. Chaudhry S.M. and Kamal S. (1996)., Introduction to Statistical Theory Part1and Part 2.,
  20. McCall J.M. (1975)., Liquid-lipquid partition coefficients by high-pressure liquid chromatography., Journal of medicinal chemistry, 18(6), 549-552.
  21. Baily M.N. and Nordhaus W.D. (1982)., The productivity growth slowdown by industry., Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1982(2), 423-459.
  22. Baily M.N. and Nordhaus W.D. (1982)., The productivity growth slowdown by industry., Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2, 423-459.
  23. Bugvi A.S., Rahat R., Zakar R., Zakar M.Z., Fischer F., Nasrullah M. and Manawar R. (2014)., Factors associated with non-utilization of child immunization in Pakistan: evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07., BMC Public Health, 14(1), 232.
  24. Jafree S.R., Zakar R. and Zakar M.Z. (2015)., Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight of Children Among Employed Mothers in Pakistan., Maternal and child health journal, 19(9), 1993-2002.
  25. Scott B. and Jenkins M. (2005)., Sanitation marketing for Managers. Introducing a sustainable approach to sanitation programs, Economic and health effects of increasing coverage of low cost household drinking water supply and sanitation interventions to countries off-track to meet MDG target 10., World Health Organization.
  26. Shuval H.I., Tilden R.L., Perry B.H. and Grosse R.N. (1981)., Effect of investments in water supply and sanitation on health status: a threshold-saturation theory., Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 59(2), 243-248.
  27. Koolwal G. and Van de Walle D. (2013)., Access to water, women’s work, and child outcomes., Economic Development and Cultural Change, 61(2), 369-405.
  28. Curtis V. and Cairncross S. (2003)., Effect of Washing Hands with Soap on Diarrhea Risk. A Systematic Review., Lancet Infectious Disease, 3(5), 275-281.
  29. Clasen T., Bartram J., Colford J., Luby S., Quick R. and Sobsey M. (2009)., Comment on Household water treatment in poor populations. is there enough evidence for scaling up now?., Environ Sci., 43(14), 5542-5544.
  30. Wilson B.H., Wilson J.T., Kampbell D.H., Bledsoe B.E. and Armstrong J.M. (1994)., Geochemistry and intrinsic bioremediation of BTX compounds., Symposium on Natural Attenuation of Ground Water, DIANE Publishing, 80.
  31. Briscoe J. (1984)., Water supply and health in developing countries. selective primary health care revisited., American Journal of Public Health, 74(9), 1009-1013.
  32. Tshikuka J.G., Scott M.E. and Gray-Donald K. (1995)., Ascaris lumbricoides infection and environmental risk factors in an urban African setting., Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 89(5), 505-514.
  33. World Health Organization (2004)., Guidelines for drinking-water quality., World Health Organization, 1, 33.
  34. WHO/UNICEF Joint Water Supply and Sanitation Monitoring Program (2014)., Progress on drinking water and sanitation: 2014 update., World Health Organization.
  35. Kieling C., Baker-Henningham H., Belfer M., Conti G., Ertem I., Omigbodun O., Rohde L.A., Srinath S., Ulkuer N. and Rahman A. (2011)., Child and adolescent mental health worldwide: evidence for action., The Lancet, 378(9801), 1515-1525.
  36. Miguel E. and Kremer M. (2004)., Worms: identifying impacts on education and health in the presence of treatment externalities., Econometrica, 72(1), 159-217.
  37. Bosch C., Hommann K., Rubio G., Sadoff C. and Travers L. (2002)., Water and sanitation. A sourcebook for poverty reduction strategies., Washington, DC: The World Bank.
  38. Bosch C., Hommann K., Rubio G., Sadoff C. and Travers L. (2002)., Water and sanitation., A sourcebook for poverty reduction strategies, Washington, DC: The World Bank.
  39. Kamal K. and Chambers R. (2008)., Handbook on Community-Led Total Sanitation., Plan International (UK).
  40. Cheng H., Sinha A., Wang X., Cruz F.W. and Edwards R. L. (2012)., The Global Paleomonsoon as seen through speleothem records from Asia and the Americas., Climate Dynamics, 39(5), 1045-1062.
  41. World Health Organization (2009)., Vision 2030: the resilience of water supply and sanitation in the face of climate change. Vision 2030., the resilience of water supply and sanitation in the face of climate change.