International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Social Status of Women in the 19th Century Tamil Society

Author Affiliations

  • 1Post Graduate and Research Department of History, Vellalar College for Women, Erode-12, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 2Post Graduate and Research Department of History,Vellalar College for Women, Erode-12, Tamil Nadu, India

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 5, Issue (9), Pages 29-34, September,14 (2016)


In Tamil Nadu, Women consist of fifty percent of the total population occupies a very low status in medieval and early modern society in Tamil. Lack of educational facilities, child marriages, prohibition of widow remarriages, prevalence of Devadasi system etc., were some of the social factors responsible for the low status and misery of women who were reduced to the position of glorified slaves. The women of weaker sections and low strata of society enjoyed comparatively more freedom since both husband and wife had to work to earn their livelihood, but their general condition was no better. Social barriers, Conservatism and female ignorance reigned supreme. Their economic position was pitiable. Therefore, the crusade for the emancipation of women became the first objective of the social reform movement, in the nineteenth centuries.


  1. Altekar A.S. (1956)., The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization, from prehistoric times to the present day., Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 2nd Edition, Delhi, 345.
  2. De’Souza A. (1975)., Women in Contemporary India-Traditional images and Changing Rules., Manohar Publishers, New Delhi, 79-81.
  3. Cousin Margret E. (1947)., Indian Womanhood Today., Kitabistan Publishers, Allahabad, 13.
  4. Paramarthalingam C. (1995)., Social Reform Movement in Tamil Nadu in the 19th Century with special Reference to St. Ramalinga., Rajakumari Publications, Madurai, 100.
  5. Sandhya N. (2005)., Indian Society., Vrinda Publications, New Delhi, 245.
  6. The Madras Mail (1904)., The Madras Mail News Paper News., The Madras Mail, News Paper (English), November 16.
  7. Census (1902)., Census of India, 1901, (1902)., Part I, Report, Francis. W., Superintendent of census operations Madras.
  8. The Indian Analyst (2016)., Miscellaneous Inscriptions From the Tamil Country., South Indian Inscriptions, 2(3), 259.
  9. Mahalingam T.V. (1940)., Administration and Social Life under the Vijayanagar: Administrartion., University of Madras, 268.
  10. Nilakanta Sastri K.A. (1955)., The Colas., University of Madras, II Edition, 554
  11. Francis Buchanan (1807)., A Journey from Madras through The countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar., T. Cadell and W. Davies, London, 2, 267.
  12. Thurston Edgard et. al. (1909)., Caste and Tribes of Southern India., 1, Government Press, Madras, 127.
  13. Margaret E. Cousins (1941)., Indian Womenhood To-day., Kitabistan Publishers, Allahabad, 114.
  14. Annie Besant (1917)., Birth of New India., Theosophical Publishing House, Madras, 289.
  15. Robert Smith Wilson (1928)., The indirect Effects of Christian Missions in India., J. Clarke & Company, London, 34-38.
  16. Natarajan S. (1959)., A Century old Social Reform in India., Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 2.
  17. Margaret L. Cormack (1961)., She who Rides a Peacock: Indian Students and Social Change: A Research Analysis., Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 105.
  18. Viduthalai News Paper (1963)., Viduthalai News Paper News., Viduthalai News Paper(Tamil), April 20 April 1963.
  19. Anaimuthu V. (1974)., Periyar, EVR Chintanigal, (Tamil)., 1, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy - Nagammai Education & Research Trust, Chennai, 21-22.