International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

The Relationship between form of Social Capital and Secondary Schools Students’ Education Achievement in Kedah

Author Affiliations

  • 1 School of Government, UUM College of Law, Government and International Studies (UUM COLGIS) 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah DarulAman, MALAYSIA

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 3, Issue (5), Pages 12-21, May,14 (2014)


The concept of social capital discussed in a variety of disciplines such as sociology, economics, anthropology, biology and others disciplines. Previous research found that student’s social capital which generated from student’s social relations with parents, teachers and peers had a significant influence on student achievement. Why do some social groups report low education attainment? The objective of this paper is to describe the difference between school students race variables with social capital variable (social capital variable refers to form of social capital included social bonds, social bridges and social links); and to describe relationship between form of social capital with students’ education achievement.This descriptive causal research investigated the effects of social capital variables on education achievement. The unit of analysis was at micro-level using questionnaire survey and nonprobability sample of 867 respondents in 2012. Less of social capital reduces the probability of reporting high education achievement. The students who have social bonds and social links report high education achievement. Students with different race report less social bonds. The results confirm that social bonds and social links affect the reporting of high educational achievement in surveys.


  1. de Tocqueville, A. Democracy in America, Harper, New York. In Field, J. 2003, Social capital, London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group (1832. [1969]) (2013)
  2. Durkheim E., The division of labor in society, Translated by George Simpson, The Free Press, New York. In Field, J. Social capital. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group (1933) (2003)
  3. Field, J. Social capital. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group (2003)
  4. OECD The well-being of nations: The role of human and social capital. Paris: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (2001)
  5. Ashton P., Social capital- its decline, effect and why the current social climate could see a change in the trend,available at, (accessed February 12, 2014), (n.d.) (2014)
  6. Giddens A., Sociology 5th Edition (Polity Press) p.675. In Ashton, P. n.d. Social capital- its decline, effect and why the current social climate could see a change in the trend,available at _essay_winner_ 09_Ashton.pdf, (accessed February 12, 2014), (2006)
  7. Anjali D., Relates on tribal education and health: Evidence from rural Odisha, India. International Research Journal of Social Science, 2(11), 11-16, (2013)
  8. Khan I. A., Effectiveness of blended learning for teaching of English: An exploratory study, Research Journal of Recent Studies, 3(3), 78-85, (2014)
  9. Mumtaz H., Saeed S. and Wahab F., Quality of University Computing Education: perception of Pakistani students, Research Journal of Recent Studies, 2(7), 24-30, (2013)
  10. Meier A., Social capital and school achievement among adolescent. CDE Working Paper No. 99-18. (n.d.)
  11. Huang L., Social capital and student achievement in Norwegian secondary schools. Learning and Individual Differences,available at /asset/3551/1 /3551_1.pdf, (accessed March 3, 2014), (2008)
  12. Feniger Y., Shavit Y. and Ayalon H., Cultural capital, social capital and educational achievement in religious and secular education in Israel, available athttp://, (accessed March 3, 2014), (n.d.)
  13. Bankston, III, C.L. Social capital, cultural values, immigrant, and academic achievement: the host country context and contradictory consequences. Sociology of Education, 77(2),176-179 (2009)
  14. Bofota Y.B., The impact of social capital on children educational outcomes: the case of Tanzania. Discussion Paper 2013-3, available /DP/IRES/2013003.pdf, (accessed March 4, 2014), (2013)
  15. Acar E., Effects of social capital on academic success: A narrative synthesis, Educational Research and Reviews, 6(6), 456-461, (2011)
  16. Bourdieu P., The forms of capital, available at, (accessed March 4, 2014), (1986)
  17. Coleman J.S., Social capital in the creation of human capital. In Ostrom, E. and Ahn, T.K. 2003. Foundations of social capital. United Kingdom: An Elgar Reference Collection (1988)
  18. Putnam R.D., Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy. United Kingdom: Princeton University Press. In Coco The Cooperation Commons, available at, (accessed March 4, 2014), (1993)
  19. Infed Search, Social capital, available at http://www., (accessed January 4, 2008), 2007)
  20. Sirianni C. and Friedland L., Social capital. In CPN.Civic dictionary, available at dictionary/ capital.html, (accessed January 4, 2008),(n.d.)
  21. Quibria M.G., The puzzle of social capital: A critical review. Manila: Asian Development Bank (2003)
  22. Chaskin R.J., George A. S. and Guiltinan S., Measuring social capital: An exploration in community- research partnership. Journal of community psychology, 34(4), 489-514 (2006)
  23. Grootaert C., Narayan D., Jones V.N. and Woolcock M., Measuring social capital. Washington D.C.: The World Bank (2004)
  24. Smith M.K., Social capital, available at /social-capital/, (March 4, 2014), (2009)
  25. Woolcock M., The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes.Isuma: Canadian Journal of Policy Research 2:1, pp. 1-17. In Smith, M. K. 2009. Social capital, available at, accessed March 4, 2014, (2001)
  26. Lin N., Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. United States of America: Cambridge University Press (2001)
  27. Bryman A. and Cramer D., Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 8 for Windows. London: Routledge (1999)
  28. Crowford N., Sandro G., Chandra F., Carl L., Bruce L. and Crystal F., The relationship between discrimination and high-risk social ties by race/ethnicity: Examining social pathways of HIV risk, Journal of Urban Health, 91(1), 151-161 (2014)
  29. Fairchild G.B. and Robinson J.A., It’s what you know and who they know: Weak ties and strong ties in urban labor markets, Academy of Management Proceedings, (2004)
  30. Gezinski L. Examining the relationship between race, ethnicity, foreign-born status, and social capital among women on Public Assistance, Social Indicators Research, Jan 2014, 115(1), 9-21 (2014)
  31. Taman E., Interracial bridging social capital among students of a multicultural university in Malaysia, Journal of College student Development, 54(1), 85-97 (2013)
  32. Ulmer J.T. and Harris C.T., Race and the religious contexts of violence: Linking religion and White, Black, and Latino violent crime, Sociological Quarterly, Sep 2013, 54(4), 610-646 (2013)
  33. Barnes M.L., Bonding, bridging, and linking social capital in an ethnically diverse fishery: The case of Hawaii’slongline fishery,Master of Science thesis, University of Hawaii’ at Manoa, available at /docview/1040861347/fulltextPDF/46953476800C450 BPQ/3?accountid=42599, (accessed February 20, 2014), (2012)
  34. Mcclung M. and Gayle V., Social capital as a mechanism for exploring the low educational achievements of looked after children, Journal of Children’s Services (2013)
  35. Lagenkamp A.G., Following different pathways: Social integration, achievement, and the transition to high school, American Journal of Education, Nov 2009, 116(1), 69-97 (2009)
  36. Woolley M.E., Gragon-Kaylor A., Gilster M.E., Karb R.A., Gant L.M., Reischl T.M. and Alaimo K., Neighbourhood social capital, poor physical conditions, and school achievement. Children & Schools, (2008)
  37. Perez J., Parenting behaviors: Their relationship to children’s perceived social support and academic achievement. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 73(11-B) (E), (2013)
  38. Klem A.M. and Connell J.P., Relationship matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement, Journal of School Health, (2004)
  39. Dufur M.J., Parcel T.L. and Troutman K.P., Does capital at home matter more than capital at school? Social capital effects on academic achievement, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 31, 1-21 (2013)
  40. Menahem G., The impact of community bonding and bridging social capital on educational performance in Israel, Urban Education, 46(5), 1100-1130 (2011)
  41. Smith F.M., Bridging the gap through academic intervention programs: A quantitative study of the efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on underpresented students’ state standardized test scores. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 73(8-A)(E),(2013)
  42. Tang S., Family educational involvement and social capital: Potential pathways to educational success for students of immigrant families. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 74(1-B)(E), (2013)
  43. Good M. and Adams G.R., Linking academic social environments, ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success, Adolescence, (2008)
  44. Gaddis S.M., What’s in a relationship?: Testing theories of social capital using data from mentoring relationships, Master of Arts thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, available at file:///C:/Users/user/ Downloads/What_s_in_a_ relationship_testing_theories _of_soci.pdf, (accessed February 24, 2014), (2009)
  45. The World Bank. Social capital and education, available at TSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/EXTTSOCIALCAPITAL/0,,cont entMDK:20186584~isCURL:Y~menuPK:418214~pagePK:148 956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:401015,00.html,(accessed March 3, 2014), (2011)
  46. Israel G.D., Beaulieu L.J. and Hartless G. The influence of family and community social capital on educational achievement, Rural Sociology, 66(1), 43-68 (2001)
  47. Liou T. and Chang N., The applications of social capital theory in education, Hsiuping Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 11, 99-122 (2008)
  48. Stanton-Salazar R.D., A social capital framework for understanding the socialization of racial minority children and youths.Harvard educational review, 67(1), 1-40.In Liou, T. and Chang, N. 2008, The applications of social capital theory in education, Hsiuping Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences., 11, 99-122 (1997)
  49. Bashir A., Bashir U., Ganie Z.A. and Lone A., Evaluation study of Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) in District Bandipora of Jammu and Kashmir, India. International Research Journal of Social Science, 3(2), 34-36, (2014)
  50. Kalpana T., A constructivist perspective on teaching and learning: A conceptual framework. International Research Journal of Social Science, 3(1), 27-29, (2014)