6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

China-Africa Cooperation-An outstanding relationship Built on Mutual Respect and Common Benefits: A Review

Author Affiliations

  • 1 School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, CHINA
  • 2 School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and National, International Cooperation Base on Environment and Energy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, P.R. CHINA
  • 3 Department of Chemistry, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, SIERRA LEONE

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 2, Issue (9), Pages 26-32, September,14 (2013)

Abstract

China-Africa relations date as far back as the sixteenth century and is characterized as mutual socio-cultural and economic partnerships. Closer cooperation in recent times is forged with the objectives of protecting common interest and promoting economic development between the two. With the emergence of China as a global super power, it views Africa as a strategic partner in the race for natural resources and a ground for newer markets. China engages the continent on a broad range of diplomatic, trade and economic forums with the aim of strengthening fraternal ties and gaining an upper hand in the acquisition of the continent’s natural resources. These strides have been very fruitful with results showing a gradual advantage of China over its Western competitors for economic interests on the continent. Nonetheless, China has been criticized for its robust diplomatic and trade maneuvers especially with rogue states and despotic African leaders at the somber plight of the poor citizens. Poor labor conditions and appalling environmental records are also highlights of China’s shortcomings. Thus, there is need for the country to fine tune its strategic socio-political and economic cooperation with the aim of fostering political stability and reducing poverty on the continent. Chinese investments should also adopt best codes of practices that aim at minimizing conflicts and guaranteeing conducive investment environments.

References

  1. Nagara B., Superpower gun Barrels Pivot East. www.thestar.co..my/columnist/story, (2012)
  2. Gin O.K., South-East Asia: A historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, ABC-CLIO, 626, ISBN 1-57607-770-5, (2004)
  3. Yu J. and Wang Z., China-Africa Strategic Partnership Ushered in a New Era, Proceedings of the 6th Shanghai Workshop on Global Governance, 77-91, (2008)
  4. Kapuwa B.P., China-Africa Cooperation: Resources Shortage or Resource Curse? Business Times, Economic and Financial Weekly (www.businesstimes.co.tz/), (2012)
  5. Alves P., China’s preferential trade policy as a foreign policy tool, Conference proceedings, Centre for Chinese Studies, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa (2013)
  6. Le Pere G., China-Europe-Africa Cooperation: Challenges and prospects for development and good governance, Proceedings of the 6th Shanghai Workshop on Global Governance, 123-128 (2008)
  7. Fernando S., Chronology of China-Africa Relations, China Report, 43(3), 363-373 (2007)
  8. Davies M., How China is Influencing Africa’s Development. A Background Paper for the Perspectives on Global Development 2010Shifting Wealth. OECD Development Centre (http://www.oecd.org/development /perspectivesonglobaldevelopment/), (2010)
  9. Condon M., China in Africa: What the Policy of Nonintervention Adds to the Western Development Dilemma, PRAXIS The Fletcher Journal of Human Security,27, 5-25 (2012)
  10. Kornegay F.A., Africa’s strategic diplomatic engagement with china, Conference Proceedings, Centre for Chinese Studies, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa, (2008)
  11. Xinhua News Agency, Sino-African friendship flares in AU new Conference Center building site, People’s Daily News, January 28, 2010, Beijing, China. http:// english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/6881053.html, (2010)
  12. China’s foreign policy and soft-power in south America, Asia and Africa, congressional research service to the Committee on Foreign Relations, library of congress april 2008 http:\\www.gpoaccess.gov/congress/index.html U.S. government printing office, 41-927, Washington , (2008)
  13. He W., China-Africa Cooperation: Partnership and Global Implications, Proceedings of the 6th Shanghai Workshop on Global Governance, 39-45, (2008)
  14. Whitehead E. and Green A.R., Africa: WEF Africa 2012-Africa’s Special Economic Zones, Africa-A Global Perspective, (2012)
  15. World Bank Institute, Developing Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and Industrial Clusters in Africa. South-South Knowledge Exchange Hub. (http://wbi.worldbank.org /sske/result-story/2586) (2012)
  16. Shu Y., China-Africa relations based on equality, mutual benefit and common development, People’s Daily News, Beijing, China, February, 26, 2010. http:// english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90780/6903736.html(2010)
  17. Chaponniere J.R., Gabas J.J. and Zheng Q., China Africa in agriculture:A background paper on Trade, investment and aid in agriculture. China-DAC Study Group on Agriculture, Food Security and Rural Development, Bamako, April 27-28, (2010)
  18. Akinkugbe R. and Steel J., New African Energy-The Ripple Effect. SOAS, University of London, (2012)
  19. Huang W. and Wilkes A., Analysis of approvals for Chinese companies to invest in Africa’s mining, agriculture and forestry sectors, Working Paper 81. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/serien/yo /CIFOR_WP/WP81.pdf(2013)
  20. Liu Y., Zhong L. and Thompson T., Assistance of Chinese Characteristics China’s Aid Program in Africa and its Consequences. Conference Paper presented at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University on the theme: China’s Role in Global and Regional Governance. (http:// www.sinoafrica.org/en/node/958), (2011)
  21. Hodel M., The Scramble for Energy: China’s Oil Investment in Africa. Journal of International Policy Solutions, (2008)
  22. Fraser C., How China is remaing Africa’s mining sector. Resources Investing News, (2012)
  23. Alessi C. and Hanson S., Expanding China-Africa Oil Ties, Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org/china /expanding-china-africa-oil-ties/p9557, February 8, (2012)
  24. Oil and Gas in Africa, Supplement to the African Development Report, Joint Study by the African Development Bank and the African Union, Oxford University Press, (2009) (http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin /uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/Full%20Document%20-%20Oil%20and%20Gas%20in%20Africa.pdf) (2013)
  25. Versfelt J.W., South Atlantic Margin Rift Basin Assymetry and Implications for Pre-Salt Exploration. Search and Discovery, 30112 (2010)
  26. Weintstein L., The new scramble for Africa, International Socialist Review, Online edition, Issue 60, July-August, (2008)
  27. Butts K.H. and Bankus B., China’s Pursuit of Africa’s natural resources, Center for Strategic Leadership, Collins center study, 1-9, 1-14 (2009)
  28. (http://www.csl.army.mil /usacsl/publications/CCS1_09_ChinasPursuitofAfricasNaturalResources.pdf)
  29. Minerals and Africa’s Development, The International Study Group Report on Africa’s Mineral Regimes, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (2011)
  30. Hu R., Chinese Investment in Africa: A Dangerous Game (2011)
  31. Sesay J.P.B., Sierra Leone Engages China-Africa Development Fund on Potential Investment Opportunities. The Sierra Leone Telegraph www.thesierraleonetelegraph.com (2012)
  32. Alyek-Omara L., China and Development in Africa: The East African Experience. (www.ventures-africa.com /2012/09/of-china-and-development-in-africa-the-east-africa-experience) (2012)
  33. Alden C., Africa Turns East: The role of political regimes in shaping responses to China, Proceedings of the 6th Shanghai Workshop on Global Governance, 105-12 (2008)