International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Prevalence and Pattern of Tobacco Consumption in India

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Institution: VMMCand Safdarjung Hospital, AIIMS, New Delhi, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Community Medicine, VMMCand Sfdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 1, Issue (4), Pages 36-43, December,14 (2012)


The recent epidemic of drug abuse has been recognized as one of the major problems facing the human race, both in the developing and the developed countries. India is equally affected by this malaise which is slowly threatening the very base of our society- individual, family and social relationship leading to weakening of social solidarity and integration. The problem of drug abuse is no longer confined to small segments of population, but has captivated and affected the people from all walks of life. The poor use it to escape from the horrendous realities of life loaded against them and the rich consume these substances as an extension of the “western enjoy culture. The selective use of drugs has degenerated into increasing abuse, dependence and crime among the younger generation.Of the various drugs abused, the most widely distributed and commonly used drug in the world is ‘Tobacco’. Many social, economic and political factors have contributed to the global spread of tobacco consumption. This article gives a global overview of prevalence and patterns of tobacco consumption with special focus on India. It highlights the risks of exposure of tobacco for both adults and adolescents. It also focuses on the impact of tobacco use on human right, ecology and economy of the country.


  1. Ramakrishna G.S., Sarma P and Thankappan K.R., Tobacco Use among Medical Students in Orissa, Natl Med J India,18, 285-99 (2005)
  2. Reddy K.S. and Arora M., Tobacco Use among Children in India: A Burgeoning Epidemic, Indian journal of Paediatric,42, 757-761 (2005)
  3. Rahul S., Vijay L., Grover S. and Chaturved A., Tobacco Use among Adolescent Students and the Influence of Role Models. New Delhi: Department of Community Medicine, UCMS and GTB Hospital, India (2009)
  4. Sen U., Tobacco Use in Kolkata, LifelineNewsletter,8, 7-9 (2002)
  5. Shoba J. and Vaite S., Tobacco and Poverty: Observations from India and Bangladesh, Canada: Path (2002)
  6. Sinha D.N., Gupta P.C., Pednekar M.S., Jones J.T and Warren C.V., Tobacco Use among School Personnel in Bihar, India, Tobacco Control,11, 82-5 (2002)
  7. Sinha D.N., Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Uttar Pradesh, India. Accessed: 1.6.2009(2002)
  8. Bhojani U.M., Chander S.J and Devadasan, N., Tobacco Use and Related Factors among Pre-University Students in A College In Bangalore, India. National Medical J. India,22, 294-7 (2009)
  9. Conrad K.M., Flay B.R and Hill D., Why Children Start Smoking Cigarettes: Predictors of Onset. British J Addiction, 87, 17-24 (1992)
  10. Chaudhary K., Prabhakar A.K., Prabhakaran P.S., Prasad A., Singh K. and Singh A., Prevalence of Tobacco Use in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh In India. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research and WHO (2001)
  11. Chadda R.K and Sengupta S.N., Tobacco Use by Indian Adolescents Tobacco Induced Diseases. Disease and Control, 1, 42-56 (2008)
  12. Chakraborty A.K., Smoking and Drug-Abuse among the Newly Admitted Students of Medical Colleges In West Bengal. Indian J Public Health, 25, 30-45 (2009)
  13. Daftary D.K., Bhonsle R.B., Murthi R.B., Pindborg J.J and Mehta F.S., An Oral Lichen Planus-Like Lesion in Indian Betel-Tobacco Chewers, Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research.8, 244-9 (1980)
  14. Gowda M., The Story of Pan Chewing In India, Botanical Museum Leaflets,14, 181-214 (1951)
  15. Gupta P.C., Mehta F.S., Irani R.R., Comparison of mortality rates among bidi smokers and tobacco chewers, Indian J. Cancer, 17(3), 149–151 (1989)
  16. Aghi M.B., Psychological Aspects of Acquitting and Cessation of Tobacco Habits in India, World Smoking Health, 55(12), 4-7 (1982)
  17. Anantha N., Nandakumar A., Vishwanath N., Venkatesh T., Pallad Y.G and Manjunath P., Efficacy of an Anti-Tobacco Community Program in India. Cancer Causes and Control6, 119-29 (1995)
  18. Atlanta G. and Georgia M., Health and Human Services, Public Health Service,64, 236-278 (1995)
  19. Abrahamson E. and Mizrahi R., Social Network Effects on the Extent of Innovation Diffusion, A Computer Simulation. Organization Science, 8(3), 289-309 (1997)
  20. Aghi M., Asma S., Yeong C. and Vaithinathan R., Initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Women and the Tobacco Epidemic: Challenges for the 21st Century. Geneva: WHO (2001)
  21. Arora M., The Tobacco Journey: Seeds of A Menace.Health for the Millions,29, 30-46 (2003)
  22. Arora M. and Reddy K.S., Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), Tobacco Control in India. Indian Journal of Social Sciences, 42, 850-85 (2005)
  23. Avinash P., Tekade Venkata V., Silpa G.S., Latif B., Vijay Sarathi Y., A study on tobacco consumption in various forms among the tobacco field workers. International Journal of Biological and Medical Research, 3(2), 1509-1511(2012)
  24. Bogolub E.B., Tobacco: The Neglected Addiction, Journal of Social Work35(1), 77-89 (1990)
  25. Bhonsle R.B., Murti P.R and Gupta P.C., Primary Prevention Trial in India: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. 21, 433-9 (1992)
  26. National Sample Survey Organisation, A Note on Consumption of Tobacco in India. Sarvekshana, A Journal of the National Sample Survey Organization,21, 69-100 (1998)
  27. Novotny, T and Zhao, F. Consumption and Production Waste: Another Externality of Tobacco Use. Tobacco Control, 75, 66-80. (1999)
  28. Nyo Nyo Kaying., A Study of Socio economics Determinants of Tobacco Use, Tobacco and Health, 56, 22-34 (2003)
  29. Narain R., Sardana S., Gupta S. and Sehgal A., Age at Initiation and Prevalence of Tobacco Use among School Children In Noida, India: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Based Survey, The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 133(3), 300–307 (2011)
  30. Osterweis M., McLaughlin C.J., Manasse H.R and Hopper C.L., Power, Policy and Politics, Health and Tobacco, 77, 66-89 (1996)
  31. Poland B., Frohlich K., Haines., R. J., Mykhalovskiy E., Rock M and Sparks R. J., The Social Context of Smoking: The Next Frontier in Tobacco Control? Tobacco Control,15, 59-63 (2006)
  32. Rani M., Bonu S., Jha P., Nguyen S.N and Jamjoum L., Tobacco Use in India: Prevalence and Predictors of Smoking and Chewing in A National Cross-Sectional Household Survey, Tobacco Control, 44, 122-45 (2003)
  33. Badger L.W., Ackerson B., Buttell F and Rand E. H., The Case for Integration of Social Work Psychosocial Services into Rural Primary Care Practice. Health and Social Work. 22(1), 20–29 (1997)
  34. Botvin G.J., Griffin K.W., Diaz T., Miller N and Williams M., Smoking Initiation and Escalation In Early Adolescent Girls: One-Year Follow-Up of A School-Based Prevention Intervention For Minority Youth. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 54, 139–143 (2000)
  35. Bartal M., Health Effects of Tobacco Use and Exposure, Monaldi Arch Chest Disorder,56, 545-554 (2001)
  36. Gupta R., Gupta V.P and Ahluwalia N.S., Educational Status, Coronary Heart Disease, and Coronary Risk Factor Prevalence in A Rural Population of India. British Medical Journal, 309, 1332-6 (1994)
  37. Gupta R., Prakash H., Majumdar S., Sharma S and Gupta V.P., Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease and Coronary Risk Factors in An Urban Population of Rajasthan. Indian Heart Journal, 47, 331-8 (1995)
  38. Gupta P.C., Sinor P.N., Bhonsle R.B., Pawar V.S and Mehta H.C., Oral Sub-Mucous Fibrosis in India: A New Epidemic? National Medical Journal of India, 11, 113-16 (1998)
  39. Geist H.J., Global Assessment of Deforestation Related To Tobacco Farming. Tobacco Control,8, 8-28 (1999)
  40. Kostova Deliana Hana Ross., Evan Blecher and Sara Markowitz., Prices and Cigarette Demand: Evidence from Youth Tobacco Use in Developing Countries. Journal of Health Economics 27, 287-299 (2010)
  41. Mehta F.S., Pindborg J.J., Gupta P.C., Daftary D.K., Smith C.J., Reverse Smoking in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Study of Palatal Lesions among Villagers, Br J Cancer, 25(1), 10–20 (1971)
  42. Mohan D., Sundaram K.R and Sharma H.K., A Study of Drug Abuse in Rural Areas of Punjab (India). Drug and Alcohol Dependence,17, 57-66 (1986)
  43. Mark S., Kaplan A., Robert E and Weiler A., Social Patterns of Smoking Behavior: Trends and Practice Implications, Journal Health and Social Work, 22, 88-97 (1997)
  44. Mohan D., Chopra, A and Sethi H., Incidence Estimates of Substance Use Disorders in A Cohort from Delhi, India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 115, 128-35 (2002)
  45. Mohan S., Sankara-Sarma P. and Thankappan K.R., Access To Pocket Money And Low Educational Performance Predict Tobacco Use among Adolescent Boys In Kerala, India. Prev Med,41 685-92 (2005)
  46. Muttapppallymyalil J., Sreedharan J and Divakaran B., Smokeless Tobacco Consumption among School Children, Indian J Cancer, 47, 19-23 (2010)
  47. Narayan K.M., Chadha S.L., Hanson R.L., Tandon R., Shekhawat S and Fernandes R.J., Prevalence and Patterns of Smoking in Delhi: Cross Sectional Study, British Medical Journal, 312, 1576-9 (1996)
  48. Netting F.E and Williams F.G., Case Manager-Physician Collaboration: Implications for Professional Identity, Roles, and Relationships, Health and Social Work, 21(3), 216–224 (1996)
  49. Gupta P.C., Mouth Cancer In India-A New Epidemic.Indian Journal of Medical Association.97, 370-373 (2002)
  50. Gupta R., Gupta V.P., Sarna M., Prakash H., Rastogi S and Gupta K.D., Serial Epidemiological Surveys In An Urban Indian Population Demonstrate Increasing Coronary Risk Factors Among The Lower Socioeconomic Strata. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 51, 470-7(2003)
  51. Gupta P.C and Ray C.S., Epidemic in India. Science, policy and public health,44, 253-66 (2004)
  52. Hans G., Prevention of Cancer in Youth with Particular Reference to Intake of Paan Masala and Gutkha. Mumbai: NSS Unit, TISS (1998)
  53. International Institute for Population Sciences. Background Characteristics of Households: National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) - 1998-1999. Mumbai: IIPS (1999)
  54. Indian Council of Medical Research. Prevalence of Tobacco Use in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Delhi: WHO/SEARO (2002)
  55. Kotwal A., Thakur R and Seth T., Correlates of Tobacco-Use Pattern amongst Adolescents in Two Schools of New Delhi, India. Indian J Med Sciences, 59, 243-252 (2005)
  56. Kumar M., Poorni S and Ramachandran S., Tobacco Use among School Children in Chennai City, India. Indian J Cancer,43, 127-31 (2006)
  57. Scal P., Ireland M. and Borowsky I.W., Smoking among American Adolescents: A Risk and Protective Factor Analysis, Journal of Community Health, 28, 79-97 (2003)
  58. Srivastava A., Pal H., Dwivedi S.N., Pandey A. and Pande J.N., National Household Survey of Drug and Alcohol Abuse in India (NHSDAA, New Delhi: Report accepted by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India and UN Office for Drug and Crime, Regional Office of South Asia (2004)
  59. Sinha D.N., Gupta P.C and Pednekar M.S., Tobacco Use among School Personnel in Eight North-Eastern States of India, Indian Journal of Cancer, 40, 3-14 (2006)
  60. Sharma R., Vijay L., Grover S and Chaturvedi A., Tobacco Use among Adolescent Students and the Influence of Role Model, New Delhi: Department of Community Medicine, UCMS and GTB Hospital. India (2010)
  61. Tiwari R.R and Zodpey S.P., Use of Smokeless Tobacco: A Community-Based Study of Behavior, Attitudes and Beliefs, Delhi, Regional Health Forum (1999)
  62. Umesh K., Consumption of Tobacco, Alcohol and Betel Leaf amongst School Children in Delhi, Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 65, 22-45 (2007)
  63. Valentich M., Social Work and the Development of A Smoke-Free Society, Social Work, 39(4), 439-450 (1994)
  64. Wig K.L., Guleria, J.S., Bhasin R.C., Holmes E. J., Vasudeva Y.L and Singh M., Certain Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects of Chronic Bronchitis As Seen In Northern India, Indian Journal of Chest Diseases.(6), 183-94 (1964)
  65. Weizenecker R. and Deal W.B., Tobacco Cropper Sickness, Journal of Florida Medical Association, (57), 13-14 (1970)
  66. World Health Organization.Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report. Geneva: World Health Organization (1997)
  67. World Health Organization. Tobacco Free Initiative html.Accessed: 2.3.2010 (2002)